By Andrew Butterfield, Gerard Ekembe Ngondi, Anne Kerr
Formerly named A Dictionary of Computing, this bestselling dictionary has been renamed A Dictionary of machine Science, and completely revised by way of a group of machine experts, making it the main up to date and authoritative consultant to computing to be had. Containing over 6,500 entries and with elevated assurance of multimedia, laptop purposes, networking, and private machine technology, it's a accomplished reference paintings encompassing all facets of the topic and is as worthy for domestic and place of work clients because it is essential for college students of laptop technology.
Terms are outlined in a jargon-free and concise demeanour with worthwhile examples the place suitable. The dictionary comprises nearly one hundred fifty new entries together with cloud computing, cross-site scripting, iPad, semantic attack, smartphone, and virtual studying environment. suggested internet hyperlinks for plenty of entries, obtainable through the Dictionary of laptop Science significant other web site, supply necessary extra info and the appendices contain worthy assets corresponding to familiar domains, dossier extensions, and the Greek alphabet.
This dictionary is appropriate for a person who makes use of desktops, and is perfect for college students of computing device technological know-how and the comparable fields of IT, maths, physics, media communications, digital engineering, and traditional sciences.
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Extra info for A Dictionary of Computer Science
If you are unable to type these characters, please browse for your term using the Alphabetical List of Entries. Alphabetical List of Entries A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 10 Base 2 10 Base 5 10 Base FX 10/100/1000 Base-T 8421 code 419 fraud 4GL 7-Zip A* algorithm ABC abduction abelian group ABI ablative abnormal termination ABONE abort absolute address absolute code absolute link absolute path absolute URL absolute value absorption laws abstract computability theory abstract data type abstract family of languages abstraction abstract machine abstract reduction system abstract specification A-buffer AC97 accelerated graphics port acceleration time accelerator key accent-sensitive accept acceptable use policy acceptance testing access Access access control access method access path access point access provider access rights access time access vector account accounting file accumulator accuracy ACE ACIA ACID ACK Ackermann benchmark Ackermann function acknowledgment ACM acoustic coupler acoustic delay line acoustic memory Acrobat action selection active Active Directory active filter active-matrix LCD Active Server Pages active star active transition active vision active widget ActiveX activity network actor language actors actual parameter actuator acyclic graph Ada Ada 95 Adams methods adaptive channel allocation adaptive compression adaptive-control system adaptive interface adaptive maintenance adaptive meshing adaptive process adaptive quadrature adaptive ray tracing ADC ADCCP A/D converter adder add-in card address addressability addressable location address book address bus address calculation sorting address format addressing addressing schemes address mapping address mark address register address-relative Address Resolution Protocol address space address table sorting add–subtract time adequacy theorem ad hoc network adjacency list adjacency matrix adjacency structure Adobe Reader ADP ADSL Advanced Encryption Standard advance-fee fraud adware AES affine mapping AFIPS AFL agenda mechanism agent agile methods AGP AGV AI Aitken’s Δ2 process AIX ALARP principle aleph null alert box algebra algebraic abstract data type algebraic language algebraic model algebraic semantics algebraic specification algebraic structure algebraic surface algebraic symbol manipulation language algebraic system algebra system Algol algorithm algorithm analysis algorithm efficiency algorithmic language alias aliasing allocation routine Alpha AXP alphabet alphabetic code alpha buffer alphamosaic alphanumeric character alphanumeric code alpha test Alt key ALU ambient computing ambient light ambiguous grammar amplitude amplitude modulation amplitude quantization analogue computer analogue signal analogue-to-digital converter analysis of variance Analytical Engine analyser ancestor AND gate AND operation AND/OR graph Andreessen, Marc Android animation ANN annotation anonymization anonymous FTP anorak ANOVA ANSI anti-aliasing anti-pattern anti-static precautions antisymmetric relation anti-virus program any-time algorithms AOL Apache APA mode API APL APP Apple Inc.
Applet application application binary interface application generator application layer application package application portability profile application programming interface applications program applications programmer applications software application store application terminal applicative language approximation theory APSE arc architectural design architecture archive Arden’s rule area coherence area filling argument arithmetic and logic unit arithmetic instruction arithmetic/logic unit arithmetic operation arithmetic operator arithmetic shift arithmetic unit arity arm ARMA ARM Holdings ARP ARPA ARPANET array array management software array processor arrow keys articulation point artificial immune system artificial intelligence artificial life artificial neural network ASCC ASCII ASF ASIC ASM AS number ASP aspect aspect ratio aspect source flag assembler assembly language assertion assertion checker assignment-free language assignment statement associative addressing associative law associative memory associative network associative operation associative processor A-stability astable asymmetric encryption asymmetric relation asymptotic asymptotic analysis asymptotic expansion asynchronous asynchronous bus asynchronous circuit asynchronous interface asynchronous TDM asynchronous transfer mode asynchronous transmission ATA Atanasoff-Berry computer AT&T ATL Atlas ATM atom atomic action atomic formula atomicity attach attachment attenuation attribute attribute grammar audio card audio response unit audit trail augmented addressing augmented reality augmented transition network AUI AUP authentication authentication code authoring language authorization autobaud autochanger autocode autodial autodump autoload autoload cartridge automated disk library automated reasoning automated tape library automatic coding Automatic Computing Engine automatic data conversion automatic data processing automatic programming automaton automorphism autonomous guided vehicle autonomous system autoplay autoregression autosave autothread auxiliary memory availability available list available time avatar average-case analysis avionics AVL tree AWK axiom axiomatic semantics axiomatic specification axonometric projection b B Babbage Babbage, Charles backbone network backdoor back driving back end back-end processor back-face detection background processing backing store backplane back plane back propagation backtracking backup Backus normal form backward chaining backward compatibility backward error analysis backward error correction backward error recovery badge reader bad sector bag balance balanced balanced cable band band-limited channel band matrix band-pass filter band printer band-reject filter band-stop filter bandwidth bank switching banner bar code bar-code scanner Barker sequence barrel printer base BASE base addressing base band baseband networking baseband signalling base-bound register base field base-limit register base register Basic batch control Batcher’s parallel method batch learning batch processing baud rate Bayesian network Bayesian statistics Bayes’s theorem BBS BCD BCD adder BCH code BCPL BCS BDF methods beam deflection bearer bearer network behavioural animation behaviour-based systems belief systems Bell Telephone Laboratories belt printer benchmark BER Berners-Lee, Sir Tim best-first search best fit beta Beta beta reduction beta test Bézier curve Bézier patch Bézier surface BGP bias biased exponent bicomponent algorithm biconditional biconnected graph bidirectional reflection distribution bifurcation big-endian bijection binary adder binary chop binary code binary-coded decimal binary counter binary digit binary encoding binary-level compatibility binary logic binary notation binary number binary operation binary prefixes binary relation binary search algorithm binary search tree binary sequence binary signal binary space-partitioning tree binary symmetric channel binary synchronous communications binary system binary tree binary-tree representation bind binding binding occurrence binomial distribution bioinformatics biomimetic robotics BIOS bipartite graph biplot bipolar integrated circuit bipolar signal bipolar transistor biquinary code Birkhoff’s completeness theorem bis B-ISDN bisection algorithm bistable BISYNC bit bit-block transfer bitblt bit density bit error rate bit handling bitmap bit matrix Bitnet bitpad bit rate bit-slice architecture bits per pixel bit string bit stuffing BlackBerry blackboard system black box black-box testing black Ethernet blank blank character blend blending blink blobby model block block cipher block code block compaction block diagram blocked process blockette blocking factor block length block retrieval block-structured languages blog blogosphere Blue Book Bluetooth Blum’s axioms Blu-ray BM algorithm BMP BNF body boilerplate BOM bookmark Boole, George Boolean algebra Boolean expression Boolean function Boolean matrix Boolean operation Boolean operator Boolean type Boolean value boom boot boot sector virus bootstrap Border Gateway Protocol Borland Software Corporation Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem codes bot BOT marker botnet bottleneck bottoming bottom-up development bottom-up parsing bounce bound boundary protection boundary representation boundary-scan testing boundary-value problem bounded delay bound occurrence bounds registers bound variable Box–Jenkins forecasting techniques boxplot Boyer–Moore algorithm bpi bps bpt branch branch and bound algorithm branching factor branch instruction branch testing breadboard breadth-first search breakpoint Bresenham’s algorithm BRI bricks-and-clicks bridge bridgeware Brin, Sergey broadband broadband coaxial systems broadband ISDN broadband networking broadcast domain broadcasting brouter browse browser brute force brute force attack BS7799 BSC BSI Group B-spline B-spline patch BSP tree B+ tree B-tree BTron bubble jet bubble memory bubble sort bucket bucket sort buddy system buffer buffering buffer overflow buffer register bug bug seeding bulk memory bulletin board system bump mapping bundle bundled attributes burn burst error burst mode bus bus arbitration bus driver bused interface bus hierarchy business graphics bus master bus terminator bus topology busy signal button byte byte code byte-order mark Byzantine Generals problem C C++ C# C2 CA cable cache CAD CADCAM CADMAT CAE CAFS CAI CAIS–A CAL call call by name call by reference call by value calling sequence call instruction CAM CAMAC Cambridge Ring campus-wide information service cancellation C&C capability architecture capability list Capability Maturity Model capacity CAPM CAPP caps lock capstan CAPTCHA CAP theorem CAR card card cage cardinality card punch card reader caret carriage return carrier carry lookahead Cartesian product Cartesian structure cartridge cartridge drive cartridge font cartridge tape cascadable counter cascade cascaded windows cascading style sheets CASE case-based reasoning case grammar case-sensitive case statement cassette CAT CAT-3 CAT-5 CAT-6 CAT-7 catastrophic code catastrophic error propagation category cathode-ray tube Catmull–Clark surfaces causal reasoning caustic CAV Cayley table CBC CBL CBR CBT CCD CCITT CCS CCTA CDC CD-DA CDDI CD-E CD-I CDIF CDOS CDR CD-R CD-ROM CD-ROM drive CD-ROM format standards CD-ROM library CD-RW CDTV ceiling cel Celeron cell cell array cell relay cellular automata machine CEN/CENELEC centralized structure store central processor Centronics interface CEPIS CERT certainty factor certificate certificate authority certification CFB CFF CGA CGI CGM chain chain code chained file chained list chaining chaining search chain printer challenge/response change dump channel channel capacity channel coding channel coding theorem channel controller channel error channel mobility channel switching channel time response chaos character character cell character encoding characteristic characteristic function characteristic vector character machine character mode character recognition character representation character set character string character type charge-coupled device chassis chat room CHDL Cheapernet Chebyshev approximation, norm check check box check character check digit checkers-playing programs checking program checkout checkpoint checksum chemoinformatics chess-playing programs chief programmer team child CHILL Chinese remainder theorem chip chip card chip set chip socket chi-squared distribution choice Cholesky decomposition Chomsky hierarchy Chomsky normal form chromaticity chromaticity coefficient chromaticity diagram chromatic number Chrome Chrome OS chunk Church–Rosser Church–Rosser theorem Church’s thesis Church–Turing thesis CICS CIE CIE colour model CIELAB CIM Cineon format cipher ciphertext CIR circuit circuit board circuit card circuit switching circular list circular shift circulating register CISC CIX CKD clamp class classifier systems Classless Inter-Domain Routing clear Clear CLI click click and drag click rate clicks and mortar click speed clickstream click-through rate client client/server client-side clip art clipboard clipping CLNS clock clock cycle clocked flip-flop clocking clock rate clock signal clock skew clone CLOS close closed closed loop closed semiring closed shop closed subroutine closed term closed-world assumption closure closure properties cloud computing CLP cluster cluster analysis clustering CLV CM CMI CMM CMMI CMOS CMS CMY colour model CMYK colour model CNC CNF CNF satisfiability Coad–Yourdon method coax coaxial cable Cobol cocktail shaker sort CoCom COCOMO CODASYL CODASYL network model Codd, Ted code codec coded character set code injection code inspection code length code mobility code of conduct code point coder-decoder codeword coding coding bounds coding standards coding theorems coding theory codomain cognitive modelling cognitive science cohesion cold boot collaborative software collating sequence collision detection collision domain collocation methods Colossus colour display coloured book colour gamut colourimetry colouring of graphs colour model colour printer colour space column-major order column-ragged column vector COM combination combinational circuit combinational logic combinator combinatorial circuit combinatorial explosion combinatorics combinatory logic combo box Comega command command and control command control language command control program command file command language command-line interface comment commit common application environment COMMON area common carrier Common Criteria common gateway interface common instance Common LISP common-sense reasoning common user access comms communicating sequential processes communication channel communication interface communication network communication port communication processor communication server communication subnetwork communication system communication theory commutative diagram commutative group commutative law commutative operation commutative ring commutative semiring compaction Compaq Computer Corporation comparator comparison counting sort compartmentalization compatibility compilation time compiler compiler-compiler compiler validation complement complementary logic complemented lattice complement number system complete graph complete lattice completeness completeness theorem complete term rewriting system complete tree complex algebra complex instruction set computer complexity complexity classes complexity function complexity measure complex number complex operation com port composition composition table compound document compression compression factor CompuServe computability computable computable algebra computable function computable real number computable set computation, model of computational creativity computational environment computational geometry computational psychology computer computer-aided design computer-aided engineering computer-aided instruction computer-aided manufacturing computer-aided process planning computer-aided production management computer-aided testing computer animation computer architecture computer-assisted learning computer-assisted software engineering computer-based learning computer-based training computer chess computer emergency response team computer family computer fraud computer games computer graphics Computer Graphics computer hardware description language computer-integrated manufacturing computer logic computer-managed instruction Computer Misuse Act 1990 computer numerical control computer object model computer power computer science Computer Services Association computer-supported cooperative working computer word compute server con concatenated code concatenated coding systems concatenation concatenation closure concept learning conceptual graphs conceptual schema concurrency concurrent assignment concurrent DOS concurrent programming condensation conditional conditional equation conditional jump condition-code register condition number cone of influence conferencing confidence interval confidentiality configuration configuration management configured-in, -off, -out confluent conformance testing conform to congruence relation conjunction conjunctive normal form CONLAN connected graph connectedness connectionism connectionless-mode network service Connection Machine connection-oriented network service connective connectivity connectivity matrix CONS consensus consistency console constant constant bit rate constant delay constraint constraint-based solid modelling constraint logic programming constraint network constraint satisfaction construct constructive function constructive solid geometry constructive specification consumable resource contact bounce contact forces content-addressable memory content-addressable parallel processor contention context awareness context-free grammar context-free language context-sensitive grammar context-sensitive language context switch contingency table continuation continuous function continuous inkjet printer continuous signal, system continuous simulation continuous stationery continuous-tone image contradiction contrapositive control bus control character control circuitry Control Data Corporation control design control flow control-flow graph control key controlled sharing controller control line control memory control points control record control sequence control stack control structure control total control unit control word convergence conversational mode converse convex hull convolution convolutional code cookie Cook–Torrance model Coons patch copy copyright copy synthesis CORAL CORBA core core store coroutine corrective maintenance correctness proof correlation correlation coefficient correspondence analysis corrupt coset coset relation cost estimation model cost function COTS countable set counter counting problem coupled coupling covariance covering covert channel CPL CPM CP/M cps CPU CPU cycle time CPU time CR cracking Craig’s interpolation theorem crash crawler Cray Inc.
A Dictionary of Computer Science by Andrew Butterfield, Gerard Ekembe Ngondi, Anne Kerr