By Andrew Butterfield, Gerard Ekembe Ngondi, Anne Kerr

ISBN-10: 0199688974

ISBN-13: 9780199688975

Formerly named *A Dictionary of Computing*, this bestselling dictionary has been renamed *A Dictionary of machine Science*, and completely revised by way of a group of machine experts, making it the main up to date and authoritative consultant to computing to be had. Containing over 6,500 entries and with elevated assurance of multimedia, laptop purposes, networking, and private machine technology, it's a accomplished reference paintings encompassing all facets of the topic and is as worthy for domestic and place of work clients because it is essential for college students of laptop technology.

Terms are outlined in a jargon-free and concise demeanour with worthwhile examples the place suitable. The dictionary comprises nearly one hundred fifty new entries together with **cloud computing**, **cross-site scripting**, **iPad**, **semantic attack**, **smartphone**, and **virtual studying environment**. suggested internet hyperlinks for plenty of entries, obtainable through the *Dictionary of laptop Science* significant other web site, supply necessary extra info and the appendices contain worthy assets corresponding to familiar domains, dossier extensions, and the Greek alphabet.

This dictionary is appropriate for a person who makes use of desktops, and is perfect for college students of computing device technological know-how and the comparable fields of IT, maths, physics, media communications, digital engineering, and traditional sciences.

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If you are unable to type these characters, please browse for your term using the Alphabetical List of Entries. Alphabetical List of Entries A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 10 Base 2 10 Base 5 10 Base FX 10/100/1000 Base-T 8421 code 419 fraud 4GL 7-Zip A* algorithm ABC abduction abelian group ABI ablative abnormal termination ABONE abort absolute address absolute code absolute link absolute path absolute URL absolute value absorption laws abstract computability theory abstract data type abstract family of languages abstraction abstract machine abstract reduction system abstract specification A-buffer AC97 accelerated graphics port acceleration time accelerator key accent-sensitive accept acceptable use policy acceptance testing access Access access control access method access path access point access provider access rights access time access vector account accounting file accumulator accuracy ACE ACIA ACID ACK Ackermann benchmark Ackermann function acknowledgment ACM acoustic coupler acoustic delay line acoustic memory Acrobat action selection active Active Directory active filter active-matrix LCD Active Server Pages active star active transition active vision active widget ActiveX activity network actor language actors actual parameter actuator acyclic graph Ada Ada 95 Adams methods adaptive channel allocation adaptive compression adaptive-control system adaptive interface adaptive maintenance adaptive meshing adaptive process adaptive quadrature adaptive ray tracing ADC ADCCP A/D converter adder add-in card address addressability addressable location address book address bus address calculation sorting address format addressing addressing schemes address mapping address mark address register address-relative Address Resolution Protocol address space address table sorting add–subtract time adequacy theorem ad hoc network adjacency list adjacency matrix adjacency structure Adobe Reader ADP ADSL Advanced Encryption Standard advance-fee fraud adware AES affine mapping AFIPS AFL agenda mechanism agent agile methods AGP AGV AI Aitken’s Δ2 process AIX ALARP principle aleph null alert box algebra algebraic abstract data type algebraic language algebraic model algebraic semantics algebraic specification algebraic structure algebraic surface algebraic symbol manipulation language algebraic system algebra system Algol algorithm algorithm analysis algorithm efficiency algorithmic language alias aliasing allocation routine Alpha AXP alphabet alphabetic code alpha buffer alphamosaic alphanumeric character alphanumeric code alpha test Alt key ALU ambient computing ambient light ambiguous grammar amplitude amplitude modulation amplitude quantization analogue computer analogue signal analogue-to-digital converter analysis of variance Analytical Engine analyser ancestor AND gate AND operation AND/OR graph Andreessen, Marc Android animation ANN annotation anonymization anonymous FTP anorak ANOVA ANSI anti-aliasing anti-pattern anti-static precautions antisymmetric relation anti-virus program any-time algorithms AOL Apache APA mode API APL APP Apple Inc.

C. signalling DCT DCVS DDC DDCMP DDE DDL DDoS DDP DDS DEA deadlock deadly embrace debit/credit benchmark debouncing de Bruijn diagram debugging debug tool DEC decade counter decal de Casteljau algorithm decidable problem decidable set decision gate decision problem decision procedure decision support system decision surface decision table decision tree declaration declarative languages DECnet decoder decoder/demultiplexer decoder/driver decoder error decoding decollator decompiler decomposition decompression deconvolution decryption dedicated dedicated mode deduction deductive apparatus Deep Blue deep case deep structure Deep Thought default default rules defect skipping deferral deferred addressing deferred approach to the limit definition deflation defrag defragmentation degree degree of precision degrees of freedom Dekker’s algorithm Delaunay triangulation delay differential equations delayed branch delay line delay-power product delete delimiter Dell delta PCM demand paging demand reading, writing Demilitarized Zone demodulator demon de Morgan’s laws demultiplexer dendrogram denial denial of service denotational semantics density denumerable set deposit depth depth-balanced depth buffer depth cueing depth-first search deque derivation sequence derivation tree derivative DES descendant descriptor design database design pattern design review desktop desktop publishing destructive read determinant deterministic deterministic language deterministic Turing machine DEUCE developer development life cycle device device coordinates device driver DFD D flip-flop DFT DHCP dhrystone benchmark DHTML diagnostic routine diagonalization diagonal matrix diagrammatic technique dialler dialogue box dialogue management dictionary diff Difference Engine difference equations differential backup differential dump differential equations differential PCM diffuse reflection diffusion address digital digital audio tape digital camera digital cassette digital certificate digital circuit digital computer digital copier digital data storage digital data transmission digital design digital design language Digital Equipment Corporation digital filtering digital halftone digital image digital logic digital signal digital signal processing digital signature digital sorting digital system digital-to-analogue converter digital versatile disk digital video digital video disk digital video interactive digital video interface digitization digitizer digraph Dijkstra, Edsger Dijkstra’s algorithm DIL DIL switch dimension diminished radix complement diminishing increment sort DIMM DIN connector dingbat diode diode-transistor logic DIP direct-access storage device direct addressing direct-coupled machines direct data entry direct digital control directed graph directed set directed tree direction keys directive direct memory access directory directory services directory tree direct product DirectX Dirichlet region disable disarm disassembler disc disconnected graph discourse understanding discrete and continuous systems discrete channel discrete component discrete cosine transform discrete event simulation discrete Fourier transform discrete mathematics discrete process control discrete signal discrete source discrete structure discrete system discretionary access control discretization discretization error discriminant analysis disjoint disjunction disjunctive normal form disk disk array disk cache disk cartridge disk drive diskette disk format disk pack disk stack disk striping disk-to-plate disk unit dispatcher dispersion displacement mapping display Display Port display processor Distiller distributed array processor distributed artificial intelligence distributed computing environment Distributed Concurrent Versions System distributed database distributed denial of service distributed file system distributed problem solving distributed processing distributed queue dual bus distributed system distribution distribution counting sort distributive lattice distributive laws dithered colour dithering dither noise diverse programming divide and conquer sorting divided difference divider DLL DMA DME DML DMZ DNS DNS server docking station document documentation document image processing Document Object Model document processing document reader document scanner document sorter document type definition do loop DOL system DOM domain domain knowledge domain modelling domain name server domain name system domain theory dominator dongle do-nothing instruction don’t care dope vector DOS DOS box dot com dot diffusion dot matrix printer double buffering double click double complement double-density recording double-length arithmetic double negation double precision doubly linked list do-while loop down downline download down operation downsizing downtime DP DPCM dpi DQDB drag drag and drop DRAM draughts-playing programs DRAW DRCS DRDW drive driver drop-down menu drop-in drop-on-demand inkjet printer drop-out drum plotter drum printer drum scanner dry run DSL DSM DSP DSPACE DSS DTD DTE DTIME DTL DTP D-type flip-flop dual dual attach dual core dual in-line package duality dual port memory dual processor dummy instruction dump dump check dump point duplex duty cycle DVD DVI dyadic dyadic operation Dyck language dye-polymer media dynamic dynamic allocation dynamic data structure Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol dynamic HTML dynamic link library dynamic logic dynamic memory dynamic programming dynamic testing dynamic web page EAN EAPROM EAROM Easter egg EBCDIC EBNF e-book e-business ECB ECBS echo echo check echoing echo suppression ECL ECMA International ECMAScript e-commerce edge edge board edge card edge connector edge detector edge-triggered flip-flop EDI EDIFACT edit editor Edmonds’ algorithm EDP EDS EDSAC EDVAC EEPROM EEROM effective address effective computability effective enumeration effective procedure EFT EFTPOS EFTS egoless programming EIA EIDE Eiffel eigenfunctions eigenvalue problems eigenvectors EIR EISA elapsed time e-learning electrographic printer electroluminescent display electromagnetic beam deflection electromagnetic compatibility electronic electronic blackboard electronic data interchange electronic data processing electronic filing electronic funds transfer system electronic graffiti electronic learning electronic mail electronic organizer electronic point-of-sale system electronic publishing electronic signature electrophotographic printer electrosensitive printer electrostatic beam deflection electrostatic printer electrostatic storage device electrothermal printer element Ellison, Larry ELSE rule EMACS email EMAS embedded computer embedded servo embedding EMC EMI emittance texture emitter-coupled logic e-money emoticon empty list empty medium empty set empty string EMS memory emulation emulator enable enable pulse encapsulated PostScript encapsulation encoder encoding encryption end-around-carry end-around shift endomorphism endorder traversal end-to-end control end-to-end encryption energizer engine engineering of computer-based systems enhanced small-device interface ENIAC enterprise modelling enterprise resource planning enterprise server entity entity-relationship-attribute diagram, model entropy entry point entry time enumeration enumeration type environment environment mapping EOB EOD EOF EOJ EOR EOT EOT marker epimorphism epistemology EPLD epoch EPOS EPPT EPROM EPS EPSF EPSI equation equational logic equational specification equational term rewriting system equipotent equivalence equivalence class equivalence gate equivalence relation equivalent binary digits equivalent trees ERA diagram ERA model erasable programmable logic device erasable PROM erase head eraser erasure channel ergodic source ergonomics Erlang ERP error error analysis error bound error burst error control error-correcting code error correction error-detecting code error detection error diagnostics error estimate error handling error-indicating recording error management error message error propagation error rate error recovery error routine error seeding escape character escape sequence escrow ESD ESDI ESF coating ESPRIT ESSI ETB Ether Ethernet Ethernet card e-ticket ETX/ACK Euclidean norm Euclid’s algorithm Eudora EUI-48 EUI-64 Euler cycle Euler operators Euler’s formula Euler’s method EUREKA European Article Numbering code evaluation function even parity event-driven event input event tree analysis evolutionary programming exa- exbi- Excel exception exception handling excess-3 code excess factor excess-n notation exchangeable disk store exchange selection exclusive-NOR gate exclusive-OR gate exclusive-OR operation executables execute execute phase execute step execution states execution time executive program executive state exerciser exhaustive search existential quantifier exit point EXNOR gate EXOR gate expanded memory expansion expansion card expansion slot expectation experimental design expert systems explicit address exploratory data analysis exponent exponentially bounded algorithm exponential waveform exponentiation export list exposed terminal problem ExpressCard expression expression of requirements extended addressing extended ASCII extended BNF extended memory extended precision extensibility extensible addressing extensible language extensible stylesheet language extension extension field Exterior Gateway Protocol external device external fragmentation external interrupt external node external path length external schema external sorting external storage extranet extrapolation extrapolation method extrinsic semiconductor Facebook facet facial animation facilities management facsimile factorable code factor analysis factorial designs FADEC Fagan inspection fail-safe fail-soft failure failure modes failure rate failure recovery fairness fair surface design fallback false position method fan-in Fano coding Fano decoding fan-out FAQ farm FAST Fast Ethernet fast Fourier transform FAT father file fault fault detection fault diagnosis fault-tolerant system fault tree analysis fax fax card FCC FDDI F distribution FDM feasibility study feature detection feature modelling feed feedback feedback queue feedback register feed-forward register Feistel cipher Ferranti Mark I ferrite ferroelectric display FET fetch-execute cycle fetch protect FF FFT Fibre Channel fibre distributed data interface fibre optics Fibonacci search Fibonacci series fiche field field bus field-effect transistor field-programmable devices FIFO fifth generation file file activity file allocation table file descriptor file directory file editing file extension file format file integrity file locking file maintenance file management file management system file manager file mark file name file organization file protection file recovery file server file system file transfer file transfer protocol file updating fill area primitive fill character filling film scanner filter filtering filtering bridge find find and change finite automaton finite-difference method finite-element analysis finite-element method finite field finite-length arithmetic finite-model theory finite sequence finite set finite-state automaton FIPS Fire codes Firefox firewall FireWire firing rule firmware FIRST first-class type first fit first generation first in first out first normal form first-order logic first-order term fixed-base system fixed disk drive fixed head fixed-length arithmetic fixed-length code fixed point fixed-point notation fixed-point theorem fixed-radix system fixed space fixed word length computer flag flame flash memory flat addressing flatbed plotter flatbed scanner flat file model flat pack flat-panel display flat screen flexible array flexible disk cartridge flexible manufacturing system flexible PCB flicker flip-flop float floating-point notation floating-point operation flood-fill floor flop floppy disk floppy-disk drive flops floptical disk flowchart flow control Floyd method fluid logic Flynn’s classification FM FMECA FMS FMV folding font font cartridge footprint foreground processing foreign key forest for loop form formal language formal language theory formal logic formal method formal parameter formal specification formal system formal verification formant format format string bug formatter form factor form feed form letter form overlay form stop Forth Fortran forum forward bias forward chaining forward error correction forward error recovery forward pruning Fourier analysis Fourier descriptors Fourier series Fourier transform four Russians algorithm fourth generation fourth-generation language FP FPA FPGA FPLA FQDN fractal fractal image compression fraction fractional-level zooming fractional part fractional replication fragmentation frame frame buffer frame grabber frameless rendering frame relay frames framework Framework Programme Framework Programmes, I–VII FranzLisp Fredholm integral equation freedom of information free list free monoid free occurrence free semigroup Free Software Foundation free-space list free text retrieval free variable freeware freeze-frame frequency frequency distribution frequency divider frequency division multiplexing frequency domain frequency function frequency modulation frequency shift keying Fresnel factor friction drive front end front-end processor FSA FSF FSK FTAM FTFL code FTP FTVL code Fujitsu full adder full backup full custom full duplex full-motion video full subtractor full text retrieval full tree function functional cohesion functional dependency functional design functional languages functional partitioning functional specification functional testing functional unit function key function point analysis functor fuser fusible link fuzzy control fuzzy logic FYI G Galerkin’s method gallium arsenide devices Galois field games console games port game theory game tree Gane–Sarson Gantt chart gap theorem garbage garbage collection garbage in garbage out gate gate array Gates, Bill gateway gather write Gaussian distribution Gaussian elimination Gaussian noise Gaussian quadrature GB Gbps GBS method Gbyte GCD GCR GDI geek gender bender generalized additive models generalized Church–Turing thesis generalized linear model generalized sequential machine general-purpose computer general-purpose interface bus general recursive function generating polynomial generations generative grammar generator generator matrix generic generic compaction generics genetic algorithm genetic programming geodesic geodesic curves geographic information system geometric modeller gesture Gflops gibi- GIF giga- Gigabit Ethernet GIGO Gilbert–Varshamov bound GINO–F GIS Git GKS glass-box testing glass teletype glitch global global discretization error global illumination global optimization glossy reflection glyph GNU goal-directed processing Gödel numbering Gödel’s incompleteness theorems Golay codes golden section search gold master Good–de Bruijn diagram goodness-of-fit test Google gopher Gopher Goppa codes GOTO statement Gouraud shading GP GPIB GPU graceful degradation graded index fibre Gragg’s extrapolation method grammar grandfather file granularity graph graphical device interface graphical kernel system graphical user interface graphic characters graphics graphics adapter graphics image format graphics mode graphics primitive graphics processing unit graphics program graphics tablet graphics workstation graph plotter graph rewrite system gravity field Gray code greatest common divisor greatest lower bound greedy method greeking Green Book Greibach normal form grey importer grey-level array grey-level image greyscale grid Grosch’s law ground term group group code group code recording group graph group mark groupware Grzegorczyk hierarchy gsm mapping guest GUI gulp H2020 hacker hacking Hadamard codes Hadamard matrices half-adder half duplex half-height factor halfplane half subtractor halfsurface halftone half word halt halting problem Hamiltonian cycle Hamming bound Hamming codes Hamming distance Hamming metric Hamming radius Hamming space Hamming sphere Hamming weight hand-held computer handle handshake hands off hands on hang-up Hanoi haptics hard copy hard disk hard return hard-sectored disk hardware hardware character generation hardware circuitry hardware description hardware maintenance hardware reliability hardware security hardwired Harvard Mark I hash function hashing hashing algorithm hash P complete hash search hash table hash total hash value Haskell Hatley–Pirbhai Hayes command set Hayes-compatible hazard hazard and operability study HAZOP HCI HD HDD HD DVD HDLC HDTV head head crash headend header head-mounted display head-per-track drive heap heapsort height height-balanced helical scan help desk help system hemi cube He model Hermite interpolation hertz heuristic heuristic search Hewlett-Packard hex hexadecimal notation hex pad hibernate hidden file hidden-line/hidden-surface removal hidden-line removal hidden-surface removal hidden terminal problem hierarchical addressing hierarchical B-splines hierarchical class structure hierarchical cluster analysis hierarchical communication system hierarchical database system hierarchical data model hierarchical encoding hierarchical memory structure hierarchical radiosity hierarchy hierarchy of functions High-Definition DVD higher-order term high-level design high-level language high-level scheduler highlight highlighting high-order language high-pass filter High Performance File System High Sierra standard highway hill climbing hi res histogram hit rate HLHSR HLS colour model HMD HMI Hoare logic HOL hold time Hollerith, Herman Hollerith code holographic memory holographic scanner home key home page homogeneous coordinates homomorphic image homomorphism HOOD hook into hop HOPE Horizon 2020 horizon effect horizontal check horizontal microinstruction horizontal recording Horn clause Horner’s method host computer hosting host language hot key hot link hotspot hot swapping housekeeping HPF HPFS HP-PA HSI HSV colour model HTML HTTP hub hub polling hue Huffman encoding human-computer interface hybrid computer hybrid integrated circuit hypercube hyperedge hypergraph hyperlink hypermedia hypertext hypertext mark-up language hypertext transfer protocol hypervisor IA5 IAB IANA IAP IAS IAS computer IBG IBM IBM-compatible IBM system 360 IC I2C ICANN ICC ICL icon ICON ICR ICT IDE IDEF idempotent law identification identifier identity burst identity element identity function identity matrix idle time IDMS IDP IEC IEEE IEEE1394 IESG IETF if and only if statement IFE iff IFIP IFS if then else statement IGBT IGES ignore character IH iLink ill-conditioned illegal character illegal instruction ILLIAC IV illumination IMA iMac image image capture image compression image display image file format image grabber image management system image map image processing image tearing image understanding image warping IMAP immediate access store immediate addressing immunization impact printer imperative languages implementation implicant implicit surface implied addressing import list imprecision impulse noise IMS inactive incidence matrix inclusive-OR gate inclusive-OR operation incomplete knowledge-based system incompleteness theorems inconsistent increment incremental backup incremental compaction incremental compiler incremental dump incremental learning indegree indeterminate system index indexed addressing indexed file indexed sequential file index register indicator indirect addressing individual attributes induction industrial robotics Industry Standard Architecture inequality inference inference engine infinite resolution infix notation influence informatics information information and communications technology information destination information engineering information hiding information leak information management system information processing information retrieval information science information sciences information source information storage and retrieval information structure information superhighway information system information systems information technology information theory INFORMIX infrared interface infrastructure-based architecture INGRES inherent addressing inherently ambiguous language inheritance inhibit initial algebra initialization initial-value problem injection inkjet printer in-line function inner code inoculation inorder traversal input input area input device input-limited process input/output insert install instance instantaneously decodable instantiation instruction instruction counter instruction cycle instruction format instruction register instruction repertoire instruction sequencing instruction set instruction stream instrument integer integer programming integer type integral domain integral equation integrated circuit integrated data processing integrated device electronics integrated modular avionics integrated office system integrated services digital network integrated systems factory integration testing integrity integrity level integro-differential equation Intel Intel High Definition Audio Intellect intellectual property intelligent front end intelligent network intelligent terminal intensity interaction interactive interactive development environment interactive graphics interblock gap interface interior node interior path length interlacing interlock intermediate code intermediate storage internal fragmentation internal schema internal sorting Internet Internet access provider Internet address The Anatomy of an Internet Address Internet Architecture Board Internet café Internet Engineering Steering Group Internet Engineering Task Force Internet Explorer Internet Message Access Protocol internet protocol Internet Protocol Security Internet service provider Internet Society internetworking interoperability interpolation interpretation interpreter interpretive language interprocess communication interquartile range interrogation interrupt interrupt-driven interrupt handler interrupt I/O interrupt mask interrupt priority interrupt service routine interrupt vector intersection intersegment linking interval analysis interval timer intranet intrinsic semiconductor invariant inverse inverse homomorphic image inverse matrix inverse power method inverse video inverted file inverter invertible matrix involution operation I/O I/O buffering I/O bus I/O channel I/O control I/O device I/O file I/O instruction I/O-limited I/O mapping ionographic printer IOP I/O port I/O processor I/O register iOS I/O supervisor I/O switching IP iPad IP address IPC IP core iPhone IPL IPO iPod IPSec IPv4 IPv6 IrDa IRQ irradiance irradiance gradient irrecoverable error irreducible polynomial irreflexive relation irreversible encryption IS ISA ISAM ISDN ISF ISO ISO-7 ISOC isolation isoline isolux curves isomorphism ISO/OSI reference model isosurface ISP ISR IT ITA-5 Itanium iterated function system iterated map iteration iterative deepening iterative improvement iterative methods ITron ITSEC ITU ITU-T jackknife Jackson method JANET Jarrot’s method Java JavaBean Java Development Kit JavaScript JavaServer Pages Java Virtual Machine JCL JDK jewel box JIT compiler jitter JK flip-flop job job-control language job file job mix job monitoring Jobs, Steve job scheduling job step job stream Johnson counter join operator Josephson junction Josephson technology journal tape Jovial joystick JPEG JSD JSP JTMP jukebox jump jump instruction junction justify Just-in-time compiler JVM K KADS Kalman filter Kamarkar’s method Karnaugh map kB Kbps KBS Kbyte K-complexity k-connectivity KDC KDD Kerberos Kermit kernel kernel field kerning key keyboard keyboard encoder key frame keypad keypunch keyring drive key sorting keyword keyword parameter Kildall, Gary kill file kilo- Kilostream Klatt synthesizer Kleene closure Kleene-plus Kleene star Kleene’s theorem k lookahead kludge KMP algorithm knapsack problem knot knowledge knowledge acquisition knowledge base knowledge-based system knowledge discovery in databases knowledge elicitation knowledge engineering knowledge engineering toolkits knowledge representation Knuth, Donald E.

Applet application application binary interface application generator application layer application package application portability profile application programming interface applications program applications programmer applications software application store application terminal applicative language approximation theory APSE arc architectural design architecture archive Arden’s rule area coherence area filling argument arithmetic and logic unit arithmetic instruction arithmetic/logic unit arithmetic operation arithmetic operator arithmetic shift arithmetic unit arity arm ARMA ARM Holdings ARP ARPA ARPANET array array management software array processor arrow keys articulation point artificial immune system artificial intelligence artificial life artificial neural network ASCC ASCII ASF ASIC ASM AS number ASP aspect aspect ratio aspect source flag assembler assembly language assertion assertion checker assignment-free language assignment statement associative addressing associative law associative memory associative network associative operation associative processor A-stability astable asymmetric encryption asymmetric relation asymptotic asymptotic analysis asymptotic expansion asynchronous asynchronous bus asynchronous circuit asynchronous interface asynchronous TDM asynchronous transfer mode asynchronous transmission ATA Atanasoff-Berry computer AT&T ATL Atlas ATM atom atomic action atomic formula atomicity attach attachment attenuation attribute attribute grammar audio card audio response unit audit trail augmented addressing augmented reality augmented transition network AUI AUP authentication authentication code authoring language authorization autobaud autochanger autocode autodial autodump autoload autoload cartridge automated disk library automated reasoning automated tape library automatic coding Automatic Computing Engine automatic data conversion automatic data processing automatic programming automaton automorphism autonomous guided vehicle autonomous system autoplay autoregression autosave autothread auxiliary memory availability available list available time avatar average-case analysis avionics AVL tree AWK axiom axiomatic semantics axiomatic specification axonometric projection b B Babbage Babbage, Charles backbone network backdoor back driving back end back-end processor back-face detection background processing backing store backplane back plane back propagation backtracking backup Backus normal form backward chaining backward compatibility backward error analysis backward error correction backward error recovery badge reader bad sector bag balance balanced balanced cable band band-limited channel band matrix band-pass filter band printer band-reject filter band-stop filter bandwidth bank switching banner bar code bar-code scanner Barker sequence barrel printer base BASE base addressing base band baseband networking baseband signalling base-bound register base field base-limit register base register Basic batch control Batcher’s parallel method batch learning batch processing baud rate Bayesian network Bayesian statistics Bayes’s theorem BBS BCD BCD adder BCH code BCPL BCS BDF methods beam deflection bearer bearer network behavioural animation behaviour-based systems belief systems Bell Telephone Laboratories belt printer benchmark BER Berners-Lee, Sir Tim best-first search best fit beta Beta beta reduction beta test Bézier curve Bézier patch Bézier surface BGP bias biased exponent bicomponent algorithm biconditional biconnected graph bidirectional reflection distribution bifurcation big-endian bijection binary adder binary chop binary code binary-coded decimal binary counter binary digit binary encoding binary-level compatibility binary logic binary notation binary number binary operation binary prefixes binary relation binary search algorithm binary search tree binary sequence binary signal binary space-partitioning tree binary symmetric channel binary synchronous communications binary system binary tree binary-tree representation bind binding binding occurrence binomial distribution bioinformatics biomimetic robotics BIOS bipartite graph biplot bipolar integrated circuit bipolar signal bipolar transistor biquinary code Birkhoff’s completeness theorem bis B-ISDN bisection algorithm bistable BISYNC bit bit-block transfer bitblt bit density bit error rate bit handling bitmap bit matrix Bitnet bitpad bit rate bit-slice architecture bits per pixel bit string bit stuffing BlackBerry blackboard system black box black-box testing black Ethernet blank blank character blend blending blink blobby model block block cipher block code block compaction block diagram blocked process blockette blocking factor block length block retrieval block-structured languages blog blogosphere Blue Book Bluetooth Blum’s axioms Blu-ray BM algorithm BMP BNF body boilerplate BOM bookmark Boole, George Boolean algebra Boolean expression Boolean function Boolean matrix Boolean operation Boolean operator Boolean type Boolean value boom boot boot sector virus bootstrap Border Gateway Protocol Borland Software Corporation Bose–Chaudhuri–Hocquenghem codes bot BOT marker botnet bottleneck bottoming bottom-up development bottom-up parsing bounce bound boundary protection boundary representation boundary-scan testing boundary-value problem bounded delay bound occurrence bounds registers bound variable Box–Jenkins forecasting techniques boxplot Boyer–Moore algorithm bpi bps bpt branch branch and bound algorithm branching factor branch instruction branch testing breadboard breadth-first search breakpoint Bresenham’s algorithm BRI bricks-and-clicks bridge bridgeware Brin, Sergey broadband broadband coaxial systems broadband ISDN broadband networking broadcast domain broadcasting brouter browse browser brute force brute force attack BS7799 BSC BSI Group B-spline B-spline patch BSP tree B+ tree B-tree BTron bubble jet bubble memory bubble sort bucket bucket sort buddy system buffer buffering buffer overflow buffer register bug bug seeding bulk memory bulletin board system bump mapping bundle bundled attributes burn burst error burst mode bus bus arbitration bus driver bused interface bus hierarchy business graphics bus master bus terminator bus topology busy signal button byte byte code byte-order mark Byzantine Generals problem C C++ C# C2 CA cable cache CAD CADCAM CADMAT CAE CAFS CAI CAIS–A CAL call call by name call by reference call by value calling sequence call instruction CAM CAMAC Cambridge Ring campus-wide information service cancellation C&C capability architecture capability list Capability Maturity Model capacity CAPM CAPP caps lock capstan CAPTCHA CAP theorem CAR card card cage cardinality card punch card reader caret carriage return carrier carry lookahead Cartesian product Cartesian structure cartridge cartridge drive cartridge font cartridge tape cascadable counter cascade cascaded windows cascading style sheets CASE case-based reasoning case grammar case-sensitive case statement cassette CAT CAT-3 CAT-5 CAT-6 CAT-7 catastrophic code catastrophic error propagation category cathode-ray tube Catmull–Clark surfaces causal reasoning caustic CAV Cayley table CBC CBL CBR CBT CCD CCITT CCS CCTA CDC CD-DA CDDI CD-E CD-I CDIF CDOS CDR CD-R CD-ROM CD-ROM drive CD-ROM format standards CD-ROM library CD-RW CDTV ceiling cel Celeron cell cell array cell relay cellular automata machine CEN/CENELEC centralized structure store central processor Centronics interface CEPIS CERT certainty factor certificate certificate authority certification CFB CFF CGA CGI CGM chain chain code chained file chained list chaining chaining search chain printer challenge/response change dump channel channel capacity channel coding channel coding theorem channel controller channel error channel mobility channel switching channel time response chaos character character cell character encoding characteristic characteristic function characteristic vector character machine character mode character recognition character representation character set character string character type charge-coupled device chassis chat room CHDL Cheapernet Chebyshev approximation, norm check check box check character check digit checkers-playing programs checking program checkout checkpoint checksum chemoinformatics chess-playing programs chief programmer team child CHILL Chinese remainder theorem chip chip card chip set chip socket chi-squared distribution choice Cholesky decomposition Chomsky hierarchy Chomsky normal form chromaticity chromaticity coefficient chromaticity diagram chromatic number Chrome Chrome OS chunk Church–Rosser Church–Rosser theorem Church’s thesis Church–Turing thesis CICS CIE CIE colour model CIELAB CIM Cineon format cipher ciphertext CIR circuit circuit board circuit card circuit switching circular list circular shift circulating register CISC CIX CKD clamp class classifier systems Classless Inter-Domain Routing clear Clear CLI click click and drag click rate clicks and mortar click speed clickstream click-through rate client client/server client-side clip art clipboard clipping CLNS clock clock cycle clocked flip-flop clocking clock rate clock signal clock skew clone CLOS close closed closed loop closed semiring closed shop closed subroutine closed term closed-world assumption closure closure properties cloud computing CLP cluster cluster analysis clustering CLV CM CMI CMM CMMI CMOS CMS CMY colour model CMYK colour model CNC CNF CNF satisfiability Coad–Yourdon method coax coaxial cable Cobol cocktail shaker sort CoCom COCOMO CODASYL CODASYL network model Codd, Ted code codec coded character set code injection code inspection code length code mobility code of conduct code point coder-decoder codeword coding coding bounds coding standards coding theorems coding theory codomain cognitive modelling cognitive science cohesion cold boot collaborative software collating sequence collision detection collision domain collocation methods Colossus colour display coloured book colour gamut colourimetry colouring of graphs colour model colour printer colour space column-major order column-ragged column vector COM combination combinational circuit combinational logic combinator combinatorial circuit combinatorial explosion combinatorics combinatory logic combo box Comega command command and control command control language command control program command file command language command-line interface comment commit common application environment COMMON area common carrier Common Criteria common gateway interface common instance Common LISP common-sense reasoning common user access comms communicating sequential processes communication channel communication interface communication network communication port communication processor communication server communication subnetwork communication system communication theory commutative diagram commutative group commutative law commutative operation commutative ring commutative semiring compaction Compaq Computer Corporation comparator comparison counting sort compartmentalization compatibility compilation time compiler compiler-compiler compiler validation complement complementary logic complemented lattice complement number system complete graph complete lattice completeness completeness theorem complete term rewriting system complete tree complex algebra complex instruction set computer complexity complexity classes complexity function complexity measure complex number complex operation com port composition composition table compound document compression compression factor CompuServe computability computable computable algebra computable function computable real number computable set computation, model of computational creativity computational environment computational geometry computational psychology computer computer-aided design computer-aided engineering computer-aided instruction computer-aided manufacturing computer-aided process planning computer-aided production management computer-aided testing computer animation computer architecture computer-assisted learning computer-assisted software engineering computer-based learning computer-based training computer chess computer emergency response team computer family computer fraud computer games computer graphics Computer Graphics computer hardware description language computer-integrated manufacturing computer logic computer-managed instruction Computer Misuse Act 1990 computer numerical control computer object model computer power computer science Computer Services Association computer-supported cooperative working computer word compute server con concatenated code concatenated coding systems concatenation concatenation closure concept learning conceptual graphs conceptual schema concurrency concurrent assignment concurrent DOS concurrent programming condensation conditional conditional equation conditional jump condition-code register condition number cone of influence conferencing confidence interval confidentiality configuration configuration management configured-in, -off, -out confluent conformance testing conform to congruence relation conjunction conjunctive normal form CONLAN connected graph connectedness connectionism connectionless-mode network service Connection Machine connection-oriented network service connective connectivity connectivity matrix CONS consensus consistency console constant constant bit rate constant delay constraint constraint-based solid modelling constraint logic programming constraint network constraint satisfaction construct constructive function constructive solid geometry constructive specification consumable resource contact bounce contact forces content-addressable memory content-addressable parallel processor contention context awareness context-free grammar context-free language context-sensitive grammar context-sensitive language context switch contingency table continuation continuous function continuous inkjet printer continuous signal, system continuous simulation continuous stationery continuous-tone image contradiction contrapositive control bus control character control circuitry Control Data Corporation control design control flow control-flow graph control key controlled sharing controller control line control memory control points control record control sequence control stack control structure control total control unit control word convergence conversational mode converse convex hull convolution convolutional code cookie Cook–Torrance model Coons patch copy copyright copy synthesis CORAL CORBA core core store coroutine corrective maintenance correctness proof correlation correlation coefficient correspondence analysis corrupt coset coset relation cost estimation model cost function COTS countable set counter counting problem coupled coupling covariance covering covert channel CPL CPM CP/M cps CPU CPU cycle time CPU time CR cracking Craig’s interpolation theorem crash crawler Cray Inc.

### A Dictionary of Computer Science by Andrew Butterfield, Gerard Ekembe Ngondi, Anne Kerr

by Charles

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