By Roger Scruton

ISBN-10: 1349064130

ISBN-13: 9781349064137

ISBN-10: 1349064157

ISBN-13: 9781349064151

This re-creation takes inventory of the progressive alterations that experience taken position because the dictionary was once first released in 1982. 1790 entries hide each point of political notion offering an integral advisor to the idea, the knowledge and the folly of recent politics by means of probably the most lucid philosophers of our time.

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Aristotle was a vigorous critic both of *democracy, and of the kind of collective education advocated by *Plato. He defended the family as the nucleus of political organization, and argued for a connection between family and *household, and therefore for the necessity of *private property. He also argued that some men are naturally slaves in that they depend upon the will of others for their motivating force, so that the *division of labour required in every state is both natural and just. Aristotle defined a citizen as anyone who can 'hold office', and his description of the ideal system of offices provides the foundation for many modern forms of *constitutionalism.

Ambiguous term which may mean either absolute government (see *absolutism), or self-government (see •autonomy, political), or self-sufficiency (see •autarky). autarky. Self-sufficiency; etymologically distinct from •autarchy. Now used primarily in an economic sense to denote the fact or the aim of national self-sufficiency in food, raw materials and production. The aim of autarky is part of the politics of *isolationism, and goes with resistance to *free trade, and to any form of economic or political dependence on other sovereign powers.

Austin, John (1790-1859), English legal philosopher. See *command, *jural relations, *law, *philosophical radicals, *positivism. Austrian economics. A school of economic thought originating in the work of Carl Menger (1840-1921), who developed the still widely influential *marginal authenticity utility theory of *value. His work was further developed by Friedrich von Wieser (1851-1926), Eugen von BohmBawerk (1852-1914) and Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973), and the tradition has continued into our own time, gaining renewed political influence in the thought of the philosopher-economist •von Hayek, who has tried to combine the original empirical theory of value with philosophical considerations concerning freedom, the nature of the state, and the structure of markets, so as to provide an elaborate *apologetic for modern *capitalism.

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A Dictionary of Political Thought by Roger Scruton

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