By Thomas Philipp

Thomas Philipp's examine of Acre combines the main large use so far of neighborhood Arabic resources with advertisement files in Europe to make clear a sector and tool middle many establish because the starting of recent Palestinian heritage. The 3rd greatest urban in eighteenth-century Syria—after Aleppo and Damascus—Acre was once the capital of a politically and economically particular zone at the Mediterranean coast that integrated what's this present day northern Israel and southern Lebanon. within the eighteenth century, Acre grew dramatically from a small fishing village to a fortified urban of a few 25,000 population. funds plants (first cotton, then grain) made Acre the heart of alternate and political energy and associated it inextricably to the area economic system. Acre used to be markedly diversified from different towns within the zone: its city society consisted virtually completely of immigrants looking their fortune.

The upward thrust and fall of Acre within the eighteenth and 19th centuries, Thomas Philipp argues,...

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A grant from the Social Science Research Council supported my research in the archives of the Chamber of Commerce in Marseilles. I am grateful to the Gerda Henkel Stiftung for enabling me to carry out research in Damascus. Many people were at various stages willing to listen to my queries and to give me advice. My special thanks go to Butrus Abu Manneh, André Raymond, and Eugene Rogan, who all commented on the project or read parts of the work in progress and gave me much encouragement. Thanks also to the anonymous readers whose recommendations and advice helped me to improve the structure of the book.

Small fortified places dotted the northern Galilee and the Metuali Mountains and served local chieftains as retreats in case of emergency. Their strategic value was rather limited, their importance only local. Such places were used by the sons of Ẓāhīr al-‘Umar to defend themselves against their father. Further north, the Metualis tried to offer resistance in their fortifications to Aḥmad Pasha al-Jazzār until he had them destroyed. In the early eighteenth century only Damascus and Jerusalem were effectively fortified cities and only the former played any military role.

No invader could ignore Acre or Jaffa, the latter often serving as an extension of the power base of the former. The coastal cities further north, such as Sidon, Beirut, and Tripoli, were no longer or not yet of economic or strategic importance. Such was also the case with the inland cities in the south—Hebron, Jerusalem, and, to a degree, Nablus. After securing Acre the armies had to turn inland to Damascus, the “Gate to the Pilgrimage” and the seat of the most powerful representative of Ottoman might, the governor of Damascus and his troops.

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Acre. The Rise and Fall of a Palestinian City, 1730-1831 by Thomas Philipp

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