By T. Ostenfeld, C. N. Svendsen (auth.), J. D. Pickard, V. V. Dolenc, J. Lobo Antunes, JH.-J. Reulen, M. Sindou, A. J. Strong, N. de Tribolet, C. A. F. Tulleken, M. Vapalahti (eds.)

ISBN-10: 3709106419

ISBN-13: 9783709106419

ISBN-10: 3709172179

ISBN-13: 9783709172179

As an addition to the ecu postgraduate education method for younger neurosurgeons, we started to put up in 1974 this sequence of Advances and Technical criteria in Neurosurgery which used to be later subsidized via the eu organization of Neurosurgical Societies. This sequence used to be first mentioned in 1972 at a mixed assembly of the Italian and German Neurosurgical Societies in Taormina, the founding fathers of the sequence being Jean Brihaye, Bernard Pertuiset, Fritz Loew and Hugo Krayenbuhl. therefore have been tested the rules of ecu co­ operation which were born from the eu spirit, flourished within the ecu organization, and feature been linked all through with this senes. the truth that the English language is now the foreign medium for communique at ecu scientificconferences is a brilliant asset by way of mutual realizing. for that reason we've determined to put up all contri­ butions in English, whatever the local language of the authors. All contributions are submitted to the complete editorial board prior to e-book of any quantity for scrutiny and recommendations for revision. Our sequence isn't really meant to compete with the guides of unique scientificpapers in different neurosurgical journals. Our purpose is, fairly, to offer fields of neurosurgery and similar components during which vital fresh advances were made. The contributions are written via experts within the given fieldsand represent the 1st a part of every one volume.

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However, these factors may have a regulatory function that extends beyond the traditional period of neural development. This view gains support from the observations that multipotent neural precursors isolated from various regions of the adult mammalian brain have also been shown to proliferate in response to FGF-2 and/or EGF (see [I I, 104, 124, 149,294, 327] and section on Neural Stem Cells in the Adult Mammalian Brain). It should be recognised that the demonstration of cellular multipotentiality cannot be used as evidence for a homogeneous population of neural stem cells.

This would appear to be true irrespective of the brain region Recent Advances in Stem Cell Neurobiology 35 Fig. 7. Fluorescent photomicrographs showing the emergence of differentiating ptubulin-Ill-positive neurons (red) and GFAP-positive astroeytes (green) from human neurosphere (a). The majority of developing neurons express a GABAergie phenotype (green) (b). Many also express the mature neuronal marker MAP2ab (red) (c) and Ncurofilament 70 (red) (d). Scale bars = 30 11m (a); IS 11m (b -d) from which the precursors were originally derived.

These findings may reflect the late expression of the EGF receptor and is consistent with the rodent studies discussed above [66]. It should be recognised that cell differentiation potential following mitogen withdrawal from human neurosphere cultures has most often been analysed on a population basis rather than at a clonal (single-cell) level. In the absence of evidence for the existence of multipotent neural stem cells, such cultures are best considered to comprise of human neural precursor cells.

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Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery by T. Ostenfeld, C. N. Svendsen (auth.), J. D. Pickard, V. V. Dolenc, J. Lobo Antunes, JH.-J. Reulen, M. Sindou, A. J. Strong, N. de Tribolet, C. A. F. Tulleken, M. Vapalahti (eds.)

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