By International Atomic Energy Agency

ISBN-10: 9201147031

ISBN-13: 9789201147035

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XRF spectrometers (Fig. 2) consist of a source of excitation radiation (an X ray tube for fixed systems or a radioisotope for portable systems), a radiation detector to detect the stimulated radiation from the sample and a display of the spectral output. In portable systems, built-in isotope identification software helps in comparing the wavelength of the stimulated X rays with known data. For further analysis, computers often are used. , RINDBY, A. (Eds), Microscopic X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis, Wiley, Chichester (2000).

TRAUTMANN1, G. HUBER2, G. PASSLER2, K. g. 239/240 Pu, 89/90Sr and 41Ca, in environmental, technical and biomedical samples by atom counting using selective laser based resonance ionization in combination with conventional mass spectrometry. Why nuclear analytical techniques? In the field of ultra-trace analysis of radioisotopes, the radiometrical determination of low concentrations of a and b emitters can have severe limitations: interferences from other radionuclides may exist, and the level of detection is dependent on the lifetime.

This procedure has significant drawbacks. First, during sampling the normal flow of the solution is interfered with, which probably leads to non-representative results. Second, the sampling positions have to be predetermined at practical distances, thus the spatial resolution of measurement is limited. Third, the analyte concentration near the migration front might be beneath the limit of detection of the particular analytical method employed, so the actual front might not be clearly detectable.

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Analytical applications of nuclear techniques by International Atomic Energy Agency

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