By Callum F. Ross, Richard F. Kay
This moment variation can be an edited quantity of curiosity to those that do examine and educate concerning the evolution of primates. It goals to show to primatologists, anthropologists, palaeontologists, and neuroscientists the newest reviews of primate phylogeny, the anthropoid fossil list, the evolution of the primate visible method, and the starting place of the anthropoid social structures. This name features a CD-ROM and colour figures.
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Additional info for Anthropoid Origins: New Visions
1999), and the suggestion that primates might have been distinct in the Cretaceous (Martin, 1993), have raised the possibility that the anthropoid stem lineage (Beard and MacPhee, 1994; Culotta, 1992; Fleagle and Kay, 1994b; Godinot, 1994), or the common lineage of tarsiers and anthropoids (Ross, 2000), branched off prior to the diversification of omomyiforms and adapiforms in the early Eocene. If true, this eliminates most of the primate Tertiary fossil record of North America and Europe from relevance for resolving questions about the ancestry of Anthropoidea; it suggests a fundamental dichotomy between omomyids and adapids of the Northern continents and Anthropoidea ofAfrica and South America (Fleagle and Kay, 1994b), and focuses our attention on early-middle Eocene fossils from Africa,Asia, and South America (Ross, 2003).
Daubentonia, for example, did not fit neatly into the orders of mammals, showing affinities with rodents, monkeys, makis (lemurs), and marsupials (Geoffroy, 1795). Moreover, 6 Callum F. Ross and Richard F. Kay upon splitting Linnaeus' genus Lemur into five separate genera, Lemur, Indri, Loris, Galago, and Tarsius, Geoffroy argued that Indri was an intermediate between monkeys and makis, and that galagos were intermediates between lorises and Tarsius (Geoffroy, 1796). He cited these intermediate forms, and others among fishes, birds, and mammals, as evidence that transformations of "the same" organs could be traced through all vertebrates (and later all invertebrates too), and that all animals must therefore be formed on a single ideal plan (1818).
17). One of the most important components of evolutionary classification was Simpson's incorporation of notions of evolutionary grade. Animals sharing enough features so as to define a distinct level of organization constituted an evolutionary grade (J. Huxley, 1958; Simpson, 1961) . Simpson did not discriminate between cases in which the defining features of the grade were present in the last common ancestor of th e taxa in the grade, or whether those features evolved in parallel. Indeed, by definition, parallelism only occurs in closely related lineages, and closely related lineages sharing features in common can, under Simpson's definitions, be monophyletic.
Anthropoid Origins: New Visions by Callum F. Ross, Richard F. Kay