By Yukio Magariyama, Seishi Kudo, Tomonobu Goto (auth.), Naomi Kato Ph.D., Joseph Ayers Ph.D., Hirohisa Morikawa Ph.D. (eds.)

ISBN-10: 4431539514

ISBN-13: 9784431539513

ISBN-10: 4431679634

ISBN-13: 9784431679639

Tens of millions of alternative animal species survive this planet, having survived for thousands of years via edition and evolution, which has given them an enormous number of buildings and services. Biomechanical reports of animals swimming and flying can reduction knowing of the mechanisms that let them to maneuver successfully and successfully in fluids . according to such understandings and analyses, we will objective to enhance environmentally pleasant machines that emulate those natu­ ral pursuits. The Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 agreed significant treaties on organic variety, addressing the brush ined problems with environmental defense and reasonable and equitable monetary improvement. with reference to coastal environments, expanding organic variety has started to play a massive function in reestablishing good and sustainable ecosystems. This process has started to persuade learn into the habit of aquatic species, as an knowing of the background of somebody aquatic species is vital in developing an environmental evaluate mod­ el that comes with the actual, chemical, and organic results of that species . From an engineering perspective, learning nature's organic range is a chance to re-examine mechanical platforms that have been systematically developed within the wake of the economic Revolution. now we have been gathering wisdom of the sys­ tems inherent in organic creatures and utilizing that wisdom to create new, envi­ ronmentally pleasant technologies.

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Extra info for Bio-mechanisms of Swimming and Flying

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Measurement of the vibration of these three parts revealed that the beating frequency of the wings and the frequency of the chest wall (exoskeleton) vibration were almost the same, although the flight muscles vibrate relatively slower than others. It was also found the string instead of the chest wall (exoskeleton) vibrated at the number of the proper vibration not the driving (picking) frequency. In other words, the model successfully simulated the indirect flight mechanism. Acknowledgements The author is very grateful to the students of my laboratory in the Dept of Engineering, NUT.

3. The change in shape of the propulsion mechanism in water (center line only). Time interval is 1/25 cycle. 32 S. Kobayashi et al. 30 ...... z E ........ x 20 u. 5 mm, A=42 mm, A. =360 mm :::] .... c. -10 -20 0 90 180 Phase 270 360 [Oeg] Fig. 4. Variation of x-direction thrust force F; for one bending cycle when the thrust force of the propulsion mechanism becomes cyclic. 3. 5 shows photographs and an illustration of the structure of the variable-bending-stiffness fin in water. The fin consists of two flexible polypropylene sheets and three sets of electromagnets and steel disks.

Fig. 5a (2» For the experiment, the maximum swing angle S was set at 60 degrees. To discuss the influence of the Reynolds number on the thrust force characteristics, movement frequency f and kinematic viscosity v (for the working fluid) were changed. We measured the lateral force of the fin as an xdirection thrust force. Electromagnet Steel disk --------~Flexib le s he e t Direction of s wing a (I) Low bending stiffness Of@/ (2) High bending stiffness Spacer Steel asll Drection rotalJon . , _.

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Bio-mechanisms of Swimming and Flying by Yukio Magariyama, Seishi Kudo, Tomonobu Goto (auth.), Naomi Kato Ph.D., Joseph Ayers Ph.D., Hirohisa Morikawa Ph.D. (eds.)

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