By Gerhard Fuchs
The biotechnology is an exceptionally very important zone within the built world's economies. This publication, with contributions from a global array of specialists, explains why biotechnology businesses in several international locations focus in a small variety of destinations and what money owed for the good fortune a few of these businesses then move directly to have.
This attention-grabbing e-book covers such topics as:
* the position of small enterprises in US biotechnology clusters
* geographic clustering within the UK
* case reviews regarding the sectors in a cross-section of ecu companies
With such foreign contributions, this booklet may be of curiosity to scholars and lecturers eager about business association, Innovation reviews and company association. not just that, pros with an curiosity in foreign company also will locate this to be a truly precious learn.
Read or Download Biotechnology in Comparative Perspective (Studies in Global Competition, 16) PDF
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Additional resources for Biotechnology in Comparative Perspective (Studies in Global Competition, 16)
In addition, ﬁrm histories were checked and conﬁrmed in BioScan. Founders having a PhD or a MD were coded as scientiﬁc founders for the purposes of this research. In addition, several individuals who did not have a doctorate but were engaged in research were included as scientiﬁc founders. All told, we were able to identify 101 scientiﬁc founders for ﬁfty-two ﬁrms making an initial public offering during this period. Biographical information was also collected from the prospectuses and was supplemented by entries from standard reference works such as American Men and Women of Science.
For example, Ciba Geigy reduced its portfolio of interests in biopharmaceuticals in 1989 in order to focus on the development of just several targeted products. Ciba Geigy subsequently increased its investment in those targeted areas and engaged in a number of research and licensing agreements with biotechnology companies. Similarly, Bayer reduced its biotechnology research in agro-chemicals while concentrating its focus on pharmaceuticals. Hoffman LaRoche similarly pulled out of agro-biotechnology to concentrate its focus on pharmaceuticals.
Sharp (1999: 137) reports that ‘most of the established pharmaceutical companies were uncertain what to make of the new technology and especially of the hype surrounding its development that grew with the small-ﬁrm sector in the US’. This uncertainty, combined with a considerable degree of scepticism, resulted in most established pharmaceutical companies distancing themselves from the ﬂedgling biotechnology industry in this initial phase. At the same time, Sharp points out that most established companies invested in sufﬁcient scientiﬁc expertise to enable them to keep abreast of developments in biotechnology and monitor the industry.
Biotechnology in Comparative Perspective (Studies in Global Competition, 16) by Gerhard Fuchs