By Andrea Piccioli, Valentina Gazzaniga, Paola Catalano
This booklet provides the result of a distinct macroscopic and radiological research, by way of X-ray and CT test, of the bone pathologies of approximately 1800 matters who lived on the time of the Roman Empire (first and moment centuries A.D.) and whose continues to be have been recovered throughout the excavation of a suburban necropolis of Rome. The survey, which represents a collaboration among the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology and the distinct Superintendent for the Archaeological historical past of Rome, has yielded superb pictures of other orthopaedic illnesses in a interval while no surgical operation used to be to be had: there are circumstances of an infection (osteomyelitis), metabolic affliction (gout), hematologic affliction (multiple myeloma), irritating lesions and their problems and degenerative pathology (osteoarthritis, really secondary and overload). A multidisciplinary workforce together with orthopaedists, paleopathologists, radiologists and scientific historians has evaluated the most important teams of bone ailment within the inhabitants checking out wonderful circumstances and imagine of ortho-traumatologic pathologies in a pre-surgical period. The homogeneity of the pattern and the variety of matters make this a examine of primary importance.
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Additional info for Bones: Orthopaedic Pathologies in Roman Imperial Age
The muscular–skeletal stress markers have been recorded considering Hawkey  and Mariotti [51, 52] with three grades of develop- ment for every enthesis. The first grade (1), characterized by a weak and average development, is divided into three sub types: light (1a), low (1b) and average development (1c). The second (2) corresponds to a marked manifestation and the third (3) to a really strong development of the tract. These grades are all physiological: absent or normal modification. Enthesopathies, when present, are divided in proliferative osteophytic forms (OF) (Figs.
Museo di Storia della Medicina, “Sapienza” Università di Roma). (b) Roman ex-voto: feet, ca. I-II. Cent. D. (Museo di Storia della Medicina, “Sapienza” Università di Roma) about therapies coming from Roman sources: it is particularly important for the historian to work together with physical anthropology and palaeopathology, which approach skeletal diseases and dysfunctions objectively, and allow tracing a consistent therapeutic and pathocenotic picture . In Celsus and Galen, the corrective treatment of fractures and dislocations confirms the high level of structural knowledge of the skeleton and the muscular system reached through animal dissections, but also the high level of technical specialization of Roman surgery in the Imperial time.
Arthritis is a degenerative pathology of the joints of the post-cranial skeleton and of the intervertebral discs of the rachis, occurring with a marginal opening (lipping), osteophytosis, porosity and eburnation. These alterations are the result of a discrepancy between requested work and work capacity of the joint. ) and/or a local one (overload and joint dynamics alterations), biomechanical stress is the necessary condition for the development of arthritis. 10 As arthritis gets worse, and leads to a direct contact between the bone surfaces, these can become shiny (eburnation) and show stripes parallel to the direction of the joint movement, often accompanied by porosities .
Bones: Orthopaedic Pathologies in Roman Imperial Age by Andrea Piccioli, Valentina Gazzaniga, Paola Catalano