By Philip L. Walker Jr. (auth.), José L. Figueiredo, Jacob A. Moulijn (eds.)

ISBN-10: 9400943822

ISBN-13: 9789400943827

ISBN-10: 9401084483

ISBN-13: 9789401084482

Carbon gasification reactions shape the foundation of many vital commercial methods, similar to the combustion of coal and the produc­ tion of synthesis gasoline, gasoline gases and activated carbons. also they are eager about metallurgical strategies and within the regeneration of coked catalysts. hence, knowing the basics of carbon gasification is of important significance for additional technological improvement. furthermore, the topic is of interdisciplinary nature, related to chemistry, ma­ terials technology and chemical engineering. for that reason, it used to be inspiration that a complicated examine Institute will be fruitful in constructing the cutting-edge, in bringing jointly specialists from some of the sectors concerned and in opting for parts of required learn and business improvement. this type of assembly used to be held at Alvor, Portugal, from the twentieth to the thirty first may possibly 1985, and the lectures provided the­ reof are amassed during this quantity. the current quantity is prepared in seven chapters. The Intro­ duction offers the carbon gasification reactions an~ their rele­ vance for specific strategies and commercial makes use of. within the moment bankruptcy, the constructions of carbon and coal are reviewed, including equipment of structural, chemical and textural characterization.

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Extra resources for Carbon and Coal Gasification: Science and Technology

Sample text

4). Figure 6 illustrates the arrangement or structures of the 40 lamellar molecules within a sphere. e. coalesced but still fluid mesophase) and eventually the semi-coke (hardened mesophase) adopts a quite complex arrangement of lamellae. The structure of coalesced mesophase possesses defects which are known as "disclinations" (24, 29). These are low energy defects some of which anneal out during the transformation of coalesced bulk but fluid mesophase to the stage of semi-coke (hardened mesophase).

II I,' I, "11 I, I II I I I I I I , I I ~ ~ c-axis al Figure 2. 13 ~ a3 The hexagonal structure of graphite. Later, in 1942 Lipson and Stokes (8) observed lines in X-ray diffractograms which could not be assigned to the hexagonal lattice. e. to rhombohedral graphite. This latter form of graphite is thermodynamically less stable than hexagonal graphite (9) and reverts to hexagonal graphite on heat treatment to between 1500 0 and 3000 0 c (10). 1 Defects in Hexagonal Graphite Single crystal graphite, of high quality, is very rare.

52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. , H. Marsh, C. T. Kelly, Chemistry and Physics of Carbon, Ed. A. , 19, 211 (1984). , D. Crawford and H. Marsh, J. App1. , ~, 415 (1975) . Crawford D. and H. Marsh, Fuel, 55, 251 (1976). Crawford D. and H. Marsh, J. Microscopy, 109, 145 (1977). Marsh H. and D. Crawford, Carbon, 22, 413-(1984). , M. Oberlin, A. Oberlin and P. Hyvernat, Carbon, ~, 337 (1980). R. A. Jefferson, Chemistry and Physics of Carbon, Eds. L. Walker Jr. A. , 14, 1 (1978). S. D.

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Carbon and Coal Gasification: Science and Technology by Philip L. Walker Jr. (auth.), José L. Figueiredo, Jacob A. Moulijn (eds.)

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