By Clark J.H., Rhodes C.N.
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Additional resources for Clean Synthesis Using Porous Inorganic Solid Catalyts and Supported Reagents
9 Clearance of probe blockages. (a) Cap can be removed to allow drilling or rodding to clear blockages. (b) Packing gland can be loosened to allow probe to be withdrawn. For high-pressure systems a retainer is required to avoid danger of 'launching' the probe. drill can be inserted through it: gate or ball valves are both suitable. Once again, process considerations dictate whether such an approach is viable; the process envelope will be breached by the clearing operation and so high-pressure processes or processes which contain hazardous materials will not be amenable to this approach.
5 illustrates these effects. A simple sample tap is not always the best choice. In a pipeline where the flow velocity is low enough to give laminar flow, then (theoretically) the flow at the surface of the pipe is static, with the velocity increasing to a maximum at the centre of the pipe. This means that sampling at the edge of the pipe is poor from the point of view of timeliness. 5 Effect of tap orientation on representativeness. (a) Orientation minimises risk of blockage by solids or sludge and minimises amount of gas or vapour which is sampled.
If it is important that the sample which is extracted actually does fully represent a two-phase process stream, then that implies that there should not be any such inertial filtration effect. Probes which avoid this are called 'isokinetic probes'. Their design is such that the flow velocity into the probe matches the flow velocity past the probe, and there is no direction change until after the sample has entered the probe. 7 illustrates this approach. The sample probes considered so far have all taken a sample from a small part of the process, essentially from the region at the tip of the probe and this has been justified on the basis that process stream is well mixed and a sample from that small region is a good representation of the whole process.
Clean Synthesis Using Porous Inorganic Solid Catalyts and Supported Reagents by Clark J.H., Rhodes C.N.