By Ernst Mayr (auth.), Kurt Benirschke (eds.)

ISBN-10: 3642859437

ISBN-13: 9783642859434

ISBN-10: 3642859453

ISBN-13: 9783642859458

Ten years in the past a symposium on Cytotaxonomy 'was held in London (Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 169:110, 1958) within which a primary try used to be made to compile a variety of disciplines to debate advances of mammalian cytogenetics and to place them into right context with the sciences of evolution and taxonomy. The introductory feedback by means of \V. B. Turrill to that symposium, basically an admonishment to be tolerant of the quick­ comings of our respective disciplines, will be a wonderful commence­ ning to this convention as ,,'ell. in spite of the fact that, the assembly held at Hanover was once conceived extra alongside the traces of feedback made via R. B. Seymour Se,,'ell in his presidential tackle to a similar society: "It has been stated that scientists during this look for fact are these days an excessive amount of interested in the buildup of evidence, and make too little use in their imagina­ tion of their makes an attempt to provide an explanation for such proof as they've got accrued. " (In "The continental waft concept and the distribution of the Copepoda," ibid. 166:149, 1956. ) \\Tith this as a history, years in the past we held the 1st of a sequence of loosely-structured meetings on reproductive failure within the enjoyable surroundings of this small New England collage neighborhood. The manu­ scripts of that assembly were released (Comparative elements of Re­ effective Failure, Springer-Verlag long island Inc. , 1967).

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Additional resources for Comparative Mammalian Cytogenetics: An International Conference at Dartmouth Medical School Hanover, New Hampshire, July 29—August 2, 1968

Example text

The Robertsonian Process The Robertsonian-type of chromosomal evolution is prevalent in mammals, so that it deserves special attention. When two closely related Chromosome Changes in Speciation 11 species are compared, one may find that species A has a diploid number of N, and species B has N-2. The karyotype of species A usually has two pairs of extra acrocentrics but lacking one pair of biarmed chromosomes, and species B, the reverse. Either a biarmed chromosome splits into two acrocentrics in the process of evolution, or two acrocentrics join to form a biarmed element.

A) The X-linkage of the Xg locus has been determined in man, by the use of anti Xg (a) sera. Erythrocytes of a person carrying an Xg (a+) allele would be agglutinated by this antiserum, while the red cells of a person homozygous or hemizygous for an Xg (a-) allele would not. When chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans and baboons were examined, they uniformly typed as Xg (a-), suggesting that if there exists allelic polymorphism at this locus in these primate species, their allelic dif- 24 Susumu Ohno ferences are not detectable by available anti human Xg (a) sera.

BioI. Monogr. 21:1, 1951. Hsu, T. : Robertsonian fusion between homologous chromosomes in a natural Chromosome Changes in Speciation 17 population of the least cotton rat, Sigmodon minimus (Rodentia, Cricetidae). Experientia, in press. - - - and F. E. Arrighi: Chromosomes of Peromyscus (Rodentia, Cricetidae). Eyolutionary trends in 20 species. Cytogenetics i :417, 1968. - - - and M. L. Johnson: Karyotypes of two mammals from Malaya. Amer. Nat. 97:127,1963. Klinger, H. : The somatic chromosomes of some primates (Tupaia glis, Nycticebus coucang, Tarsius bancanus, Cercocebus aterrimus, Symphalangus s)'ndact)'/us).

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Comparative Mammalian Cytogenetics: An International Conference at Dartmouth Medical School Hanover, New Hampshire, July 29—August 2, 1968 by Ernst Mayr (auth.), Kurt Benirschke (eds.)

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