By Joseph R. Strayer

ISBN-10: 0684190737

ISBN-13: 9780684190730

Moment quantity within the Dictionary of the center a long time sequence

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Additional resources for Dictionary of the Middle Ages. Vol. 2. Augustinus Triumphus - Byzantine Literature

Sample text

Anubis originally provided iron from the sky for the magical adze required in this ritual. Anubis’s protection extends to the tomb chapel as well as to the burial chamber since the spirit of the deceased can ascend to it to partake of food offerings or employ the magical forces in the hieroglyphs or reliefs. Usually, special formulae are given in the hieroglyphs to protect the burial of the deceased and ensure the food supply in the Afterlife. At the beginning of the Pyramid Age these invocation formulae are addressed to Anubis alone; later Osiris is incorporated and gradually supplants Anubis.

Anat is called ‘mistress of the sky’ and ‘mother of all the gods’ but it is her warlike character that predominates in both Egyptian and Near Eastern references to her. Anat’s introduction into the Egyptian pantheon was on account of her protecting the monarch in combat. For example, Ramesses III (Dynasty XX) uses Anat and ASTARTE as his shield on the battlefield and in Dynasty XIX, and even Ramesses II’s dog, shown rushing onto a vanquished Libyan in a carving in Beit el Wali temple, has the name ‘Anat in vigour’.

On the battlefield at Kadesh by the river Orontes Ramesses II (Dynasty XIX) finds himself alone surrounded by 2,500 enemy chariots. He proceeds to chide Amun for abandoning ‘his son’ in this apparently hopeless situation. Does Amun favour the Middle Easterners? What about the monuments, war-spoils and endowments of lands and cattle that Ramesses II has already given to Amun from previous campaigns? Are these to count for nothing? The god answers these rebukes by giving the pharaoh’s hand strength equivalent to that of 100,000 soldiers and Ramesses II cuts his way out of the hostile chariotry.

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Dictionary of the Middle Ages. Vol. 2. Augustinus Triumphus - Byzantine Literature by Joseph R. Strayer


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