By Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh

ISBN-10: 9401795789

ISBN-13: 9789401795784

ISBN-10: 9401795797

ISBN-13: 9789401795791

Medical perform is practiced morality, and scientific study belongs to normative ethics. the current publication elucidates and advances this thesis through: 1. studying the constitution of scientific language, wisdom, and theories; 2. inquiring into the principles of the scientific come upon; three. introducing the good judgment and technique of medical decision-making, together with synthetic intelligence in drugs; four. suggesting complete theories of organism, lifestyles, and psyche; of wellbeing and fitness, ailment, and disorder; of etiology, prognosis, analysis, prevention, and treatment; and five. investigating the ethical and metaphysical matters crucial to clinical perform and study. Many structures of (classical, modal, non-classical, chance, and fuzzy) common sense are brought and utilized. Fuzzy scientific deontics, fuzzy scientific ontology, fuzzy scientific proposal formation, fuzzy clinical decision-making and biomedicine and lots of different recommendations of fuzzification in medication are brought for the 1st time.

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Sentences are and remain mere sequences of lifeless letters or sounds. If it is true that without knowers there is no knowledge, then we ourselves are the agents whose minds on the basis of what we already know, transform a new sequence of lifeless letters or sounds into knowledge when receiving it from any source, be it a person, a book, a radio, or something else. The transformation of such a sterile sequence of letters or sounds into knowledge is accomplished by evoking or producing propositions in the receiver’s mind, usually called “interpretation” or “understanding”.

That is, one and the same sentence may express different propositions depending on the speaker, time, and place. Therefore, we must clearly distinguish between proposition and sentence. They are by no means identical. For the reasons sketched thus far, a proposition must be viewed as a non-linguistic, abstract entity. It is the mental representation, or rather the idea, of a state of affairs, be it a concrete or abstract one, real or unreal, existent or non-existent. The state of affairs is described by the sentence uttered or inscribed.

To conduct the studies sketched above, we must first assemble the logical and conceptual tools that we shall use in the book. This task is accomplished in Part IX as a sort of Appendix (pp. 891–1120). It provides the logical fundamentals comprising an outline of the relevant systems of logic from classical set theory and logic, to modal logics, non-classical logics and probability logic, and further on to fuzzy set theory and logic. For readers not acquainted with logic and its terminology, Part IX is the prerequisite for understanding the medical-philosophical frameworks and theories developed in the book.

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Handbook of Analytic Philosophy of Medicine by Kazem Sadegh-Zadeh

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