By Charles Liu
Membrane integrity is in an engaging mixture of technological know-how, engineering, and laws. The publication introduces the reader to the topic within the context of consuming water filtration. either theoretical and functional facets of membrane integrity trying out are mentioned besides historic and destiny applied sciences
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According to a survey conducted by AwwaRF, nearly 60 percent of membrane plants are required to perform (direct) integrity testing once per day, and 25 percent are required to perform testing more frequently (Adham et al. 2005). At the heart of the issue, it is a balance of risk of compromised safety and quality of the finished water from loss of membrane integrity versus the practical consideration of the effect on plant productivity of the downtime required to perform integrity testing. Therefore, it is possible to apply a risk-based approach to assessing testing frequency (Liu and Schaefer 2002; Liu 2006).
The initiation step is followed by propagation step in which free radicals react with polymeric materials to generate organic peroxides (RO2) and/or hydroperoxides (RO2H). Finally, the reaction process undergoes termination steps in which products of the reaction are generated via decomposition and/or recombination of intermediate products. , certain structural features on the polymers are more vulnerable to the chemical attacks from oxidants than the polymer as a whole. The symptoms of chemical degradation may include one or more of the following changes in a material: hardening, embrittlement, softening, cracking, crazing, discoloration or alteration of certain properties such as rejection efficiency, and weakening of mechanical strength.
As indicated in Figure 3-5, the calculated bypass flow for laminar flow condition is larger than that for nonlaminar flow condition. This difference in bypass flow calculated from two sets of equations becomes larger as the pressure differential increases. indb 41 10/18/2011 12:19:40 PM Integrity Testing for Low-pressure membranes Dilution Risk Risk Risk Risk Probability of Occurrence Figure 3-6. Risk assessment diagram for membrane integrity breach effect of broken fibers on product water quality.
Integrity Testing of Low-Pressure Membranes by Charles Liu