By William G. Eckert
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Additional info for Introduction to Food Toxicology
Cytochrome P450 activity in the small intestine of rats is highly sensitive to dietary iron. Deficiency of this metal produces a rapid drop in the activities of several P450-associated enzymes. Magnesium deficiency causes a marked decrease in metabolism of xenobiotics in the liver with lower levels of hepatic cytochrome P450 and cytochrome P450 reductase. Decreased levels of these essential components may account at least in part for the lower metabolic rate of xenobiotics in the livers of malnourished individuals.
Produced by certain amphibians in South America and Africa and has been collected from them for use as arrow poison. Most cases of human food poisoning by tetrodotoxin involve the puffer fish. These are considered a delicacy in Japan, at least in part because of the risks of eating puffer from which the poison has not been removed. Certain species of puffer fish, particularly Fugu rubripes, are very popular in international cuisine; in Japan, statistics show that over 50 people are poisoned by fugu puffer fish annually.
When administered to rats as single purified substances, some of these indoles increase CYP1A1 activity greater than 200-fold in the intestine and 30- to 40-fold in the liver. These indoles account for the majority of the inducing effects of the vegetables. Indole-3-carbinol is not an active inducing agent by itself but is converted to active substances when it contacts aqueous acid either in vitro or in vivo in the stomach. One highly active product of indole-3-carbinol and possibly other dietary indoles is ICZ (indolo[3,2-b]carbozole).
Introduction to Food Toxicology by William G. Eckert