By Gabriel W. Lasker (auth.), Morris Goodman, Richard E. Tashian, Jeanne H. Tashian (eds.)

ISBN-10: 1461587832

ISBN-13: 9781461587835

ISBN-10: 1461587859

ISBN-13: 9781461587859

In 1962 on the Burg Wartenstein Symposium on "Classification and Human Evolution," Emile Zuckerkandl used the time period "molecular anthropology" to represent the examine of primate phylogeny and human evolution throughout the genetic info contained in proteins and polynucleotides. when you consider that that point, our wisdom of molecular evolution in primates and different organisms has grown significantly. the current quantity examines this data particularly because it pertains to the phyletic place of Homo sapiens within the order Primates and to the developments which formed the course of human evolution. contributors from the disciplines of protein and nucleotide chemistry, genetics, statistics, paleon­ tology, and actual anthropology held cross-disciplinary discussions and argued a few of the significant problems with molecular anthropology and the information upon which those arguments relaxation. leader between those have been the molecular clock controversy in hominoid evolution; the molecular facts on phylogenetic relationships between primates; the evolution of gene expression legislation in primates; the connection of fossil and molecular info within the Anthropoidea and different pri­ pals; the translation of the adaptive importance of evolutionary alterations; and, eventually, the impression on mankind of reports in molecular anthropology. many of the papers during this quantity have been awarded in a initial shape at Symposium No. sixty five on "Progress in Molecular Anthropology" held at Burg Wartenstein, Austria, from July 25 to August 1, 1975. those papers have been consequently revised and a few extra papers relating to the subject matter of the symposium have been additionally contributed to this volume.

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Extra resources for Molecular Anthropology: Genes and Proteins in the Evolutionary Ascent of the Primates

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2. In essence, the same structural "aberrations" separate the karyotypes of the great apes from the human karyotype. It turns out first that the apes have 2n = 48 chromosomes, whereas Homo has only 2n = 46 chromosomes. Analysis of banding patterns has recently permitted identification of the differences between the species (see Table 11; for all details, see Dutrillaux, 1975). Different types of rearrangements can be seen, the most important ones being the following: a. 2, which corresponds to two D chromosomes in the apes.

Within the group of transitions, however, the different expectations for (C-T) transitions on the one hand and (A~G) transitions on the other are in the expected direction (C<-+T 40% polar, A<-+G 14% polar). Therefore, it appears that the higher incidence of transitions in general as compared with transversions is real, whereas the preponderance of C-T as compared with A-G transitions is caused at least partially by the preferential ascertainment of polar substitutions. Selection for function and bias by preferential discovery of polar substitutions are, of course, only the most obvious causes for differences between mutation and its ascertainment.

Schroeder, Institut fur Humangenetik, Heidelberg. , 30 F. VOGEL, M. KOPUN, AND R. RATHENBERG Table 11. Comparison of Structural Differences" between the Human Karyotype and the Karyotype of the Great Apes" Comparison H. sapiens-Po troglodytes H. sapiens-Po paniscus H. sapiens -G. gorilla H. sapiens-Po pygmaeus P. paniscus-P. troglodytes P. paniscus-G. gorilla P. paniscus-P. pygmaeus P. troglodytes-G. gorilla P. troglodytes-Po pygmaeus C. gorilla-Po pygmaeus Pericentric Paracentric Telomeric inversions inversions fusions 6 6 8 7 0 6 9 6 9 10 Other 0 (1) 2 3 (1) 2(+ 1) 3(+ 1) 2 3 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 translocation, 1 translation 3 translations, 1 complex change 1 translocation, 1 translation 3 translations, 1 complex change 1 translocation, 1 translation 3 translations, 1 complex change I translocation, 2 translations, 1 complex change a Additions of bands or heterochromatic material are not taken into account.

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Molecular Anthropology: Genes and Proteins in the Evolutionary Ascent of the Primates by Gabriel W. Lasker (auth.), Morris Goodman, Richard E. Tashian, Jeanne H. Tashian (eds.)


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