By F. Asinger (Auth.)
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T . BARR, and R . W . K R E B S , Oil Gas J. 53 (1), 166 (1954). Cf. F . Β . JOHNSON and R . E . WOOD, Petrol. Refin. 33 (11), 1 5 7 - 6 0 (1954). F . T . B A R R and J . E . JAHNIG, Chem. Engng. Progr. 51, 167 — 73 (1955).  A. GUILLEMIN, A. GIRAUD, and J . D E M E S T E R , Proc. Third World Petrol. y Sect. I V , p. 184 (1951).  A. N. SACHANEN, Conversion of Petroleum, Reinhold, New York, 2nd edition, p. 256 (1948).  H . K . W H A L L E Y , Chem. and Ind. ), 3 - 8 .  A. W . POLLOCK, Petrol.
The energy required for splitting an aliphatic C—C bond (cracking process) is thus about 20 kcal/mole less than for the rupture of a C—H bond (dehydrogenation process). I t is therefore clear that a technically satisfactory dehydrogenation cannot be achieved only by the addition of energy in the form 58 MONO-OLEFINS, CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY of heat. e. a destructive attack of the molecule requiring less energy. Dehydrogenation proper takes place only as a side reaction. Consequently a distinction is made between destructive and non-destructive dehydrogenation, and at the same time it may be stated that for the reasons of energy sketched above the latter, with the special exception of ethane, can in general be carried out with satisfactory yields only by a catalytic procedure.
B y this procedure, even more olefins are formed. In the American variant of the process for the FISCHER-TROPSCH synthesis with an iron catalyst in which this is used in the form of a "fluidized catalyst" (see Book I , p. 1 6 1 ) and in which, as is well known, substantially only lower hydrocarbons (readily liquéfiable gases and light and heavy gasolines) are formed, highly olefinic synthesis products are again produced. T A B L E 8 1 . Analysis of the Synthesis Products obtained in the Slurry-phase Process (figures in % by weight) % in the fraction concerned Fraction Up to 50 °C 50-100° 100-150° 150-200° 200-250° 250-300° 300-350° Above 350° M4 % ol tne total oil 4 20 16 10 12 10 8 20 · Alcohols Olefins Paraffins 0 5 15 12 12 10 5 85 83 67 62 63 54 45 — 12 7 11 20 17 25 38 — — Esters and acids 3 5 7 6 8 11 12 — 50 MONO-OLEFINS, CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY Table 8 2 shows the percentage composition of the synthesis products of the American process using a fluidized catalyst (Hydrocol process), while Table 8 3 gives the content of olefins in narrow fractions with rising boiling ranges.
Mono-Olefins. Chemistry and Technology by F. Asinger (Auth.)