By Gordon W. Gribble
Despite the lengthy organization of organohalogen compounds with human actions, nature is the manufacturer of approximately 5,000 halogen-containing chemical compounds. as soon as brushed off as injuries of nature or isolation artifacts, organohalogen compounds symbolize a massive and ever starting to be classification of average items, in lots of situations displaying unprecedented organic task. because the final entire assessment in 1996 (Vol. sixty eight, this series), there were came upon an extra 2,500 organochlorine, organobromine, and different organohalogen compounds. those typical organohalogens are biosynthesized by means of micro organism, fungi, lichen, vegetation, marine organisms of all kinds, bugs, and better animals together with people. those compounds also are shaped abiogenically, as in volcanoes, woodland fires, and different geothermal events.In a few situations, traditional organohalogens are exactly the comparable chemical substances that guy synthesizes for commercial use, and a few of the amounts of those common chemical substances a ways exceed the amounts emitted by way of man.
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Additional resources for Naturally Occurring Organohalogen Compounds - A Comprehensive Update
11 Simple Alkenes While the carbon–carbon double bond is a common functional group in complex natural products, it is far rarer in simple natural compounds. 1 Marine The chemically productive red algae Asparagopsis taxiformis and Asparagopsis armata, which are prized by Hawaiians for flavor and aroma (“limu kohu”, supreme seaweed) (1), contain the novel (E)-1,2-dibromoethylene (7a), (Z)-1,2-dibromoethylene (7b), and tribromoethylene (8) (364). Trichloroethylene (TCE) (301, 307–309, 312, 361, 376, 377) and tetrachloroethylene (PERC) (307–309, 312, 376, 377) continue to be found in marine algae in concentrations larger than anticipated, but their origin remains controversial (253, 278, 301, 307–309, 376–378).
The structurally similar vernolide C (284) was found in the Cambodian traditional medicinal plant Vernonia cinera (fever, colic, malaria) (526). Indeed, vernolide C could be identical with vernchinilide A. 2 Indanone Sesquiterpenes A review on the isolation, chemistry, and biochemistry of the bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) carcinogen ptaquiloside (P) has been published (527). This fern and others contain the pterosins that were summarized previously (1). No new examples were reported in the interim.
OH Br Br Br Br RO 320 (isopalisol) 321 R = H (luzonensol) 322 R = Ac (luzonensol acetate) 323 (luzonensin) Br Br HO Br Br Br OH 324 OH 325 326 O Br Br OH OH OH Cl Cl Br OH 327 328 OH 329 Br OH OH OH Br Cl 330 331 (bromocyclococanol) Br 332 50 3 Occurrence Sea hares and nudibranchs feed on seaweeds to acquire their chemicals for defense. The common sea hare Aplysia dactylomela from Spain contains puertitol-B acetate (333) (554), whereas this animal collected off the coast of South Africa affords the new algoane (334), 1-deacetoxyalgoane (335), 1-deacetoxy-8deoxyalgoane (336), and ibhayinol (337) (555, 556).
Naturally Occurring Organohalogen Compounds - A Comprehensive Update by Gordon W. Gribble