By Alexei Kryukov, Vladimir Levashov, Puzina Yulia
This e-book provides details at the improvement of a non-equilibrium method of the examine of warmth and mass move difficulties utilizing vapor-liquid interfaces, and demonstrates its software to a large diversity of difficulties. within the method, the subsequent peculiarities turn into obvious: 1. At vapor condensation at the interface from gas-vapor blend, non-condensable parts can lock up the interface floor and condensation stops thoroughly. 2. on the evolution of vapor movie at the heater in superfluid helium (He-II), the boiling mass flux density from the vapor-liquid interface is successfully 0 on the macroscopic scale. three. In difficulties about the movement of He-II bridges within capillaries stuffed by means of vapor, within the presence of axial warmth flux the He-II bridge can't circulation from the heater as might a conventional liquid, yet within the wrong way as an alternative. hence the heater draws the superfluid helium bridge. four. the form of liquid-vapor interface at movie boiling at the axis-symmetric warmers immersed in liquid enormously will depend on warmth flux within the interface. hence a brand new form of hydrostatic difficulties seems whilst unlike conventional statements the form of the liquid-vapor interface has a fancy profile with some extent of inflection and a delicate go out on a loose liquid surface.
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Extra resources for Non-Equilibrium Phenomena near Vapor-Liquid Interfaces
At this vapor film thickness is determined by the following expression: qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ d ¼ ðh0 À hw À zÞ2 þ r 2 À Rw Equation governing the motion of vapor in the film for laminar flow is the following: " 00 dP00 ng00 w ¼ 2 ds d ð5:3Þ Heat flux on the vapor–liquid interface is determined by thermal conduction: q1 ¼ k00 ðTw À T1 ÞRw dR1 ð5:4Þ From the equation of momentum conservation for liquid the next expression is followed: P0 ¼ P1 þ q0 gðh0 À zÞ ð5:5Þ The Eqs. 5) are added by the laws of conservation of mass, momentum and energy at liquid–vapor interface.
J Low Temp Phys 119(3/4):403–411 16. Khurtin PV, Kryukov AP (2000) Some models of heat transfer at film boling of suoerfluid helium near K-point in microgravity. J Low Temp Phys 119(3–4):413–420 17. Kryukov AP, Shishkova IN (1997) Transfer phenomena in vapour film on the interphase of superfluid helium in terrestrial conditions and in microgravity. In: Proceedings of joint Xth 40 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 4 Motion of Vapor–Liquid Interfaces European and VI-th Russian symposium on physical sciences in microgravity, vol 1.
2 Comparison with Experimental Data Heat transport phenomena during floating of hot spherical object in cold liquids were investigated experimentally . In this work cooling of various substances in liquid nitrogen was considered. In particular the water drops were studied with initial temperature in various experiences from 290 to 340 K. Thus, drop temperature was in several times more than temperature of a cooling liquid (nitrogen) *78 K. The corresponding difference became DT = 212–262 K, therefore water was hot object for the cryogenic environment.
Non-Equilibrium Phenomena near Vapor-Liquid Interfaces by Alexei Kryukov, Vladimir Levashov, Puzina Yulia