By Krister Holmberg
Holberg (materials and floor chemistry, Chalmers U. of expertise, Sweden) offers up to date models of the 1st edition's 11 chapters and contains six new chapters, in general facing the idea that of usual surfactants. every one bankruptcy offers with a specific category of surfactant and is gifted as an summary of the sector targeting fresh advancements. the fabric total emphasizes "green" surfactants in keeping with average construction blocks or produced via biotechnological equipment.
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Extra info for Novel Surfactants: Preparation, Applications, and Biodegradability
1573–1574, 1986. 22. Jeﬀrey, G. , and Maluszynska, H. Acta Cryst. B45: 447–452, 1989. 23. Jeﬀrey, G. A. Acc. Chem. Res. 19: 168–173, 1986. 24. Rosevear, F. B. J. Am. Oil Chemists Soc. 31: 628–638, 1954. 25. Laughlin, R. G. The Aqueous Phase Behavior of Surfactants, Academic Press, London, 1994, pp. 523–525. 26. Laughlin, R. G. Tetrahedron 53: 9997–10008, 1997. 27. Sahyun, M. R. , and Cram, D. J. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 85: 1263–1268, 1963. 28. , and Jones, F. T. J. Phys. Chem. 53: 13334–1350, 1949. 29.
A. Raw Materials for the Manufacture of Alkyl Polyglycosides  1. Fatty Alcohols Fatty alcohols can be obtained either from petrochemical sources (synthetic fatty alcohols) or from natural, renewable resources, such as fats and oils (natural fatty alcohols). Fatty alcohol blends are used in alkyl polyglycoside synthesis to build up the hydrophobic part of the molecule. The natural fatty alcohols are obtained after transesteriﬁcation and fractionation of fats and oils (triglycerides), leading to the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters, and subsequent hydrogenation.
However, studies of its behavior on cooling along the 20% and 40% isopleths (starting above the Kraﬀt boundary) revealed distinctive and unfamiliar kinetic phenomena. Cooling along the 40% isopleth to below the Kraﬀt boundary resulted in virtually instantaneous formation of the hexagonal liquid crystal phase (which displays a characteristic and intense birefringence). This result is consistent with the position of the metastable hexagonal boundary as determined using DIT studies. In striking contrast, cooling the 20% mixture did not yield a liquid crystal phase.
Novel Surfactants: Preparation, Applications, and Biodegradability by Krister Holmberg