By R. Murray

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Prove that the specific heat of an atomic gas is given by cp = (3/2)(k/m), using the formula for average energy of a molecule. 5. 3). 60 × 10-19 J. 6. What frequency of light is emitted when an electron jumps into the smallest orbit of hydrogen, coming from a very large radius (assume infinity)? 7. Calculate the energy in electron-volts of the electron orbit in hydrogen for which n = 3, and find the radius in centimeters. How much energy would be needed to cause an electron to go from the innermost orbit to this one?

In addition to the atomic number Z and the mass number A, we often need to write the neutron number N, which is, of course, A − Z. For the set of isotopes listed, N is 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, and 12, respectively. When we study nuclear reactions, it is convenient to let the neutron be represented by the symbol 10 n , implying a mass comparable to that of hydrogen, 11 H , but with no electronic charge, Z = 0. Similarly, the electron is represented by −10 e , suggesting nearly zero mass in comparison with that of hydrogen, but with negative charge.

The energy of the photon hν is equal to the difference between energies in the two orbits. 53 × 10-10 m, while the others have radii increasing as the square of integers (called quantum numbers). , the radius of the nth orbit is Rn = n2 R1 . 3 shows the allowed electron orbits in hydrogen. 5 eV, where the negative sign means that energy must be supplie d to remove the electron to a great distance and leave the hydrogen as a positive ion. The energy when the electron is in the nth orbit is E1 /n 2 .

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Nuclear Energy - An Intro to the Concepts, Systs, Applns... by R. Murray


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