By Prof. Arthur D. Hasler, Prof. Allan T. Scholz (auth.)
Chance Favors simply the ready brain How does a scientist move concerning the job of pushing again the curtains of the unknown? definitely the romance of tackling the mysteries of nature presents the inducement, for who wouldn't be encouraged by means of the amazing lifestyles background of this romantic beast, the salmon. After residing within the Pacific Ocean for a number of years, salmon swim hundreds of thousands of kilometers again to the flow in their delivery to spawn. i've got consistently been desirous about the homing migration of salmon. Noone who has visible a 20-kilogram salmon fling itself into the air time and again till it's exhausted in a useless attempt to surmount a waterfall can fail to wonder on the power of the intuition that attracts the salmon upriver to the movement the place it used to be born. yet how does it locate its long ago? i used to be considering this challenge in the course of a relations holiday in 1946. encouraged by means of the paintings of the good German Nobel Laureates, Karl von Frisch and Konrad Lorenz, I have been undertaking learn with my graduate pupil Theodore Walker, in view that 1945, at the skill of fishes to discriminate odors emanating from aquatic vegetation. Von Frisch had studied education minnows and chanced on that, if damaged, their epidermis emitted a con particular chemical substance, termed Schreckstoff, which triggered different contributors of its institution to disperse and hide.
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Additional resources for Olfactory Imprinting and Homing in Salmon: Investigations into the Mechanism of the Imprinting Process
The fish were retained at the hatchery for 10 more months before being brought into a laboratory for testing. 01 % and 1% morpholine, and EEG's from the olfactory bulb were recorded. Fish that had been exposed to morpholine displayed significantly higher EEG activity than unexposed controls. 1 Experiments in Southern Lake Michigan Imprinting Salmon with Morpholine We then began conducting field experiments (Madison et al. 1973, Scholz et al. 1973, Cooper et al. 1976). In the spring of 1971, we transported 16,000 19 18-month-old coho fingerlings of the same genetic stock, hatched and raised under uniform conditions, from a State Fish Hatchery in central Wisconsin to holding tanks at a water-filtration plant in South Milwaukee.
Oshima et al. (1969 b) demonstrated that salmon which had previously shown no olfactory-bulb response to water from the hatchery at the University of Washington College of Fisheries did respond after they had been held in this water for 67 h; in fact, they responded more strongly to this water than to their home water. Thus, since the fish used in most experiments described above were captured in the home stream, it is not clear if a response to home water in related to long-term olfactory memory of home-stream odors or to recent exposure to the water prior to testing.
The track was conducted after a rainstorm. Discolored, muddy water from the home tributary was observed to enter the main channel and flow downstream along one shoreline (stippling) . Fish traveled upstream predominantly along that shore. In addition, fish swam upstream on "ebb" seiche currents (solid lines) but swam locally on "flood" seiche currents (dotted lines) N o I KM I • 15 MINUTE INTERVALS EBB TIOE ---- FLOOD TI DE - RELEASE POINT Other tracking studies have also demonstrated a clear response by salmon to water currents.
Olfactory Imprinting and Homing in Salmon: Investigations into the Mechanism of the Imprinting Process by Prof. Arthur D. Hasler, Prof. Allan T. Scholz (auth.)