By Marlene Zuk
“With . . . proof from fresh genetic and anthropological learn, [Zuk] bargains a dose of paleoreality.”—Erin Wayman, technological know-how News
We advanced to devour berries instead of bagels, to reside in dust huts instead of condos, to dash barefoot instead of play football—or did we? Are bodies and brains actually at odds with sleek lifestyles? even though it could appear as if we've slightly had time to shed our hunter-gatherer legacy, biologist Marlene Zuk finds that the tale isn't so uncomplicated. well known theories approximately how our ancestors lived—and why we should always emulate them—are frequently in accordance with hypothesis, no longer medical evidence.
Armed with a razor-sharp wit and extraordinary, eye-opening study, Zuk takes us to the innovative of biology to teach that evolution can paintings a lot speedier than used to be formerly learned, that means that we aren't biologically kind of like our caveman ancestors. opposite to what the modern magazines might have us think, we don't take pleasure in potato chips simply because they crunch like the bugs our forebears snacked on. and ladies don’t cross into shoe-shopping frenzies simply because their prehistoric foremothers accumulated assets for his or her clans. As Zuk compellingly argues, such ideals incorrectly suppose that we’re stuck—finished evolving—and were for tens of millions of years. She attracts on attention-grabbing facts that examines every little thing from adults’ skill to drink milk to the feel of our ear wax to teach that we’ve truly by no means stopped evolving. Our nostalgic visions of an incredible evolutionary previous within which we ate, lived, and reproduced as we have been “meant to” fail to acknowledge that we have been by no means ideally suited to the environment. Evolution is ready switch, and each organism is stuffed with trade-offs.From debunking the caveman nutrition to unraveling gender stereotypes, Zuk offers an engrossing research of frequent paleofantasies and the clinical proof that undermines them, the entire whereas broadening our realizing of our origins and what they could quite let us know approximately our current and our destiny.
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Extra info for Paleofantasy: What Evolution Really Tells Us about Sex, Diet, and How We Live
It is possible that the w-nullcline intersects C0 along its middle branch. If this is the case then the cell oscillates, continuing to ﬁre action potentials, until t = Tof f when the input is turned oﬀ. Note that in order for the cell to ﬁre an action potential, the injected current must be suﬃciently strong. I0 must be large enough so that the p0 lies below the left knee of C0 . We next consider the hyperpolarizing case I0 < 0, shown in Fig. 10 (right). Then C0 lies below C and the w-nullcline intersects C0 at a point denoted by p1 .
Note that the threshold corresponds to the position of the middle branch of the cubic nullcline. Finally, we now discuss how the geometric singular perturbation approach can be used to understand the response of a neuron to injected current. Consider the system v = f (v, w) + I(t) w = g(v, w) (21) where f and g are as in (20) and I(t) represents the injected current. We assume that when I(t) = 0 the system is excitable; that is, the v- and wnullclines intersect along the left branch of the cubic.
It describes how stable oscillations arise when a ﬁxed point loses its stability. This requires at least a two dimensional system and is discussed in the next chapter. An Introduction to Dynamical Systems and Neuronal Dynamics 25 Saddle-Node Bifurcation The following example illustrates the saddle-node bifurcation: x = λ + x2 . (2) Here, λ is a ﬁxed (bifurcation) parameter and may be any real number. We wish to solve this equation for a given value of λ and to understand how qualitative features of solutions change as the bifurcation parameter is varied.
Paleofantasy: What Evolution Really Tells Us about Sex, Diet, and How We Live by Marlene Zuk