By Robert Bowen
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Additional resources for Paleotemperature Analysis
As we shall see later, temperature scales were established by EPSTEIN et al. (1951, 1953) using pelecypods, brachiopods and gastropods. The latter are a class of the Mollusca characterized by having an asymmetrical body in a spirally coiled shell, distinct head, broad flat foot whereas the Brachiopoda are another phylum. This second great zoological phylum, taxonomically equal in rank with the Mollusca but numerically vastly inferior, contains bilaterally symmetrical animals with inequivalve shells often equipped with a food-gathering apparatus called the lophophore.
The method of doing this is to use not the shell but the aptychus. Taxonomic details of the ones we examined were supplied by M. Durand-Delga (Sorbonne, Paris) and S. , Krakow). The aptychus comprises a pair of calcitic plates used as an operculum. Fontes and I collected approximately 500 of these structures in the locality of the Devoluy near Veynes in the Hautes Alpes area of France in the summer of 1962. Together with them and from the same horizons which ranged in age from the Berriasian (Lower Cretaceous) to the Albian (Middle Cretaceous), we collected about 50 belemnoids also and it is very interesting that the paleotemperatures recorded by the former may fall within the same order of magnitude as those recorded by the latter.
1951) are given in Table V. 3 • 10 •10 11 . 9-10-19 * After CURIE (1889). ** After UREY et al. (1951). If we utilize the first two values of £>co32- *n Table V, the time required for diffusion to destroy the record can be calculated. 3 · 1015 sec). 1 · 10 11 seconds) at 100°C. He pointed out that crystals of this size will not lose the temperature record due to diffusion in times sufficiently long to be of considerable interest and added that it is possible that the coefficients of diffusion may, in fact, be smaller than those given in the table.
Paleotemperature Analysis by Robert Bowen