By W. Podolski, D. Schmalzer, V. Conrad, D. Lowenhaupt, R. Winschel, E. Klunder, H. McIlvried, M. Ramezan, G. Stiegel, R. Srivastava, J. Winslow, P. Loftus, C. Benson, J. Wheeldon, M. Krumpelt, F. Smith
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Additional resources for Perry's chemical Engineer's handbook, Section 24
S. Dept. of Energy. THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION AND UTILIZATION (a) 24-39 (b) FIG. 24-39 Location and relative size of each of four passes of the flue gas through a fire-tube boiler. (From Cleaver Brooks, Inc. ) (c) (d) Sankey diagrams for various types of boilers: (a) fire-tube boiler; (b) industrial boiler; (c) subcritical-pressure boiler; (d) supercritical-pressure boiler. FIG. 24-37 supercritical-pressure boilers. Condensing losses decrease substantially, and regeneration of air and feedwater becomes increasingly important in the most advanced central-station boilers.
The hydrocarbons and oxygen form hydroxylated compounds that become aldehydes; the addition of heat and additional oxygen breaks down the aldehydes to H2, CO, CO2, and H2O. Inasmuch as carbon is converted to aldehydes in the initial stages of mixing, no soot can be developed even if the flame is quenched. Cracking occurs when oxygen is added to hydrocarbons after they have been heated, decomposing the hydrocarbons into carbon and hydrogen, which, when combined with sufficient oxygen, form CO2 and H2O.
Adequate circulation prevents excessive metal temperatures or temperature differentials that would cause failures due to overstressing, overheating, or corrosion. The rate of heat transfer from the tubes to the fluid depends primarily on turbulence and the magnitude of the heat flux itself. Turbulence is a THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION AND UTILIZATION FIG. 24-36 Field-erected radiant boiler for pulverized coal. ) function of mass velocity of the fluid and tube roughness. Turbulence has been achieved by designing for high mass velocities, which ensure that nucleate boiling takes place at the inside surface of the tube.
Perry's chemical Engineer's handbook, Section 24 by W. Podolski, D. Schmalzer, V. Conrad, D. Lowenhaupt, R. Winschel, E. Klunder, H. McIlvried, M. Ramezan, G. Stiegel, R. Srivastava, J. Winslow, P. Loftus, C. Benson, J. Wheeldon, M. Krumpelt, F. Smith