By Kurt Koffka

During this e-book, Kurt Koffka reformulates the fundamental query of notion. some time past it had frequently been assumed that there has been relatively little need to provide an explanation for the beneficial properties of veridical belief. the following Koffka rejects this strategy: whatever the veridicality of conception, the researcher should always ask the query, "Why do issues glance as they do?" The booklet information the phenomenological and holistic method of this question which the Gestalt circulate embraced, whereas additionally reviewing the huge examine which have been carried out as much as that point in aid of the Gestalt orientation. this can be a re-creation of the unique 1935 book through Routledge, up-to-date with a brand new creation.

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Introduction
1 technology and man
2 technology and phenomenology
3 The plan of this work
4 'Geographical phenomenology'
5 The disciplinary context

PART I GEOGRAPHY and conventional METAPHYSICS
Geographical discourse and its primary themes
6 simple thoughts of technology and the strategy acceptable to ontology
7 Objectivism and subjectivism
8 Positivism and naturalism
8a The a-historical nature of positivism
8b The Enlightenment and positivism
8c Naturalism and idealism
9 Kantian ontology of fabric nature
10 Conceptions of actual house and geography
10a The emergence of geography as an summary, theoretical science
10b Social physics
11 actual area, cognitive behaviouralism and the flip to subjectivity
12 The mode of being attribute of geographical objects

PART II GEOGRAPHY AND PHENOMENOLOGY
The interpretation of phenomenology in geography
13 The phenomenological foundation of geography
14 Geographical phenomenology
14a Phenomenology and sensible research
15 techniques to geographical phenomenology
15a the mandatory contrast among humanism and geography
15b Existentialism
16 The view of science
16a Phenomenology as criticism
16b Phenomenology as anti-science
16c The foundational function of phenomenology
16d Phenomena of lived experience
17 The flip to the lifeworld, and the paradox of flooring and object
18 The phenomenological method
18a Intentionality

Geographical phenomenology: a critique of its foundations
19 The metaphysics of geographical phenomenology
20 Humanism and the confusion of the 'objective' and the 'subjective'
20a Subjectivity and intentionality
20b Individualism
20c The 'things themselves', 'consciousness' and 'the challenge of the target world'
2od Idealism
21 Geographical phenomenology: its inner critique
21a Phenomenology and standards of validity
22 The flip to Schiitz's constitutive phenomenology and justifying a go back to Husserl

PART III PHENOMENOLOGY AND THE query OF HUMAN SCIENCE
Husserlian phenomenology: the foundational project
23 what's phenomenology?
23a Phenomenology: its origins and foundations
23b The common attitude
23c Empirical technology and natural science
23d unique intuition
23c Phenomena and intentionality
24 the necessity for phenomenology
24a The main issue of distance among technological know-how and life
24b The critique of the confident sciences
24c The constitution of the realm and 'objects' of science
24d Phenomenology and the guiding notion of science

Phenomenology, technology and phenomenological geography
25 Descriptive phenomenology and science
25a Sciences of truth and sciences of essence
25b Descriptive phenomenology
26 Phenomenology, technological know-how and lifeworld
26a The lifeworld ontology
26b The sciences and the lifeworld
26c The technology of the lifeworld
26d Lifeworld and transcendental phenomenology

Towards a basic ontology of science
27 Phenomenology and a primary ontology of science
28 technology and objectivation in geography
28a How does theoretical discovery arise?
28b the typical global and the theoretical attitude
29 the improvement of technological know-how and the concept that of 'progress'
30 Human technological know-how and objectification
31 Rigour and exactitude in science
32 idea and its achieve and carry over nature and world
33 technology and the lived world

PART IV HUMAN technology, WORLDHOOD, AND SPATIALITY
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34 Phenomenology
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36 in the direction of a proper projective human science
37 Husserl and human science
38 in the direction of a proper and a priori 'mathesis of spiritand of humanity'
39 The existential analytic and the human sciences
40 The existential analytic and the 'natural belief of the world' (or lifeworld)

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41 Geography, global and space
42 international and worldhood
43 Space
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43b The spatiality of the present-at-hand
44 the typical mode of being-in-the-world
45 The spatiality of the ready-to-hand: areas and regions
46 area and science
47 Man's spatiality
48 house and man's spatiality
49 position and house: implications for a local ontology of spatiality for a geographical human technological know-how

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Additional resources for Principles of Gestalt Psychology

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Being-in-itself/being-for-itself Appearing in various formulations and in various contexts across Merleau-Ponty’s work, the classical distinction between the “in itself” (the world or universe as it exists indifferent to human knowledge or perception) and the “for itself” (the transparent and reflective existence of consciousness) structures much of his research. He often identifies the “in itself” with empiricism, and the “for itself” with intellectualism, and the attempt to synthesize or sustain the two as related opposites with bad dialectic.

Leonardo’s life or his works are not the necessary outcome of his past, they are responses to that past that take it up and capture its sense toward further expressions. Chiasm The term derives from the Greek letter chi (“x”) and indicates an intertwining or a crossing-over relation or arrangement. This is often employed to describe a rhetorical structure or to describe the crisscrossing structures of nerves in the brain. Merleau-Ponty uses 38 Child Psychology and Pedagogy the term in his late ontology as a manner of capturing his understanding of flesh and the reversibility of touching/touched or of the visible and the invisible.

Turning his attention to the “child’s lived experience” of perception, Merleau-Ponty attempts to demonstrate the direct experience of a child before it is “systematized by language and thought” (141). Weighing several competing interpretations, he discusses how children’s drawings relate to society and to their perceptual experience (165–76). He adopts Wallon’s concept of “ultra-things,” namely things that remain active in child experience even though they do not adhere to spatial or temporal laws.

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Principles of Gestalt Psychology by Kurt Koffka


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