By Stephen M. Roberts
A completely up to date and elevated variation of the bestselling consultant on toxicology and its sensible software * Covers the various chemical risks encountered within the smooth paintings and normal setting, and gives a pragmatic figuring out of those risks * New chapters hide the rising parts of toxicology corresponding to omics, computational toxicology, and nanotoxicology * offers transparent reasons and sensible figuring out of the basics helpful for an realizing of the results of chemical dangers on human well-being and ecosystems * contains case histories and examples from reveal the applying of toxicological ideas * Supplemented with a variety of illustrations to explain and summarize key issues, annotated bibliographies, and a accomplished thesaurus of toxicological phrases
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Extra resources for Principles of Toxicology: Environmental and Industrial Applications
For details). 4 Subset of the human disease ontology. 5 Example of two tables that could be part of a CT relational database, showing the variables or columns in the tables. Each type of object is defined by a unique ID and a set of properties (or columns). A chemical has a CASRN, a primary name, and a molecular weight, while a chemical name has its own ID and the string that holds the name itself. The crow’s foot symbol connecting the two tables indicates that for each chemical ID (which defines a unique chemical), there can be many names (a one-to-many relationship).
D) Agonism of receptors by domoic acid and toluene. (e) Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by chlorpyrifos. Note: this is a composite scheme of multiple neurotransmitter systems. 1 Diagram of a cross-section of skin. 1 Frontal view of the skull, showing frontal, maxillary, and ethmoid sinuses. 2 Saggital view of the skull, showing nasal turbinates and sphenoid sinuses. 3 Schematic representation of the subdivisions of the conducting airways and terminal respiratory units. 4 Principal sites of particle clearance in the lungs.
9 Graphically demonstrates how the regulatory community develops safe exposure levels for chemical-induced toxicities. Starting at a dose where the adverse effect is not likely by induced (the threshold or NOAEL) dose, the allowable dosage rate is then reduced further by the adoption of safety (uncertainty) factors based on the strength of the available evidence. Reduction by a factor of 10-fold is typically adopted based on the presence of characteristics of the dose–response curve under consideration such as the following: (1) use of animal (nonhuman) data, (2) use of less than chronic exposure duration data, and (3) limited toxicity testing and similar characteristics than contribute to the uncertainty of the extrapolation being made.
Principles of Toxicology: Environmental and Industrial Applications by Stephen M. Roberts