By Gregory Richard Werner

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11), during which the voltage remained low and the current tapered to zero. The vacuum pressure spiked, and usually a brief flash of light and sometimes a sharp crack (similar in sound to a good static discharge on a dry wintry day) accompanied the breakdown event. 8 kV per (large) vertical division, and the time scale 100 ns per (large) division. The oscillations reflect resonances of the measurement circuitry or RF noise, and not oscillations in gap voltage. The important feature is that the voltage drops 10 kV in less than 20 ns.

Small pedestals greatly facilitated SEM examination. 7 mm)2 by etching) was divided into 4 quadrants, and each quadrant photographed separately. From the quadrant pictures, particles could be easily spotted. 4). 3. During the contamination stage we tried to deposit only the kinds of particles we wanted, but inevitably there are adventitious5 particles, and, given the difficulty of intentional contamination, we might as well take advantage of fortuitous contamination. 1). Inside the inner sanctum of the clean room (class 100, where full bunny suits are de rigueur, even after Labor Day), the apparatus was vented to atmospheric pressure with dry, filtered nitrogen, the cathode attachment was demounted, the old cathode plate removed, and the new plate attached.

4), often could detect remains of the original particle. Whereas EDX is sensitive to elements within a volume roughly of size 5 microns, AES is sensitive to only a few surface layers. Therefore AES can detect, for example, a 10 ˚ A thick surface layer of carbon or a sub-micron sized aluminum particle on a niobium A of carbon or a subsubstrate, when EDX would see only niobium, because 10 ˚ micron sized aluminum particle are only a very small fraction of the several micron sized volume analyzed by EDX.

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Probing and modeling voltage breakdown in vacuum by Gregory Richard Werner


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