By Claire Hamilton

ISBN-10: 1409463168

ISBN-13: 9781409463160

Drastic raises within the use of imprisonment; the advent of 'three moves' legislation and crucial sentences; regulations on parole - all of those advancements seem to represent a brand new, harsher period or 'punitive turn'. but those beneficial properties of legal justice aren't universally found in all Western international locations. Drawing on empirical information accumulated from 1976-2006, Hamilton examines the superiority of harsher penal regulations in eire, Scotland and New Zealand, emphasising the significance of viewing felony justice from smaller jurisdictions. This hugely cutting edge booklet is punctiliously serious of how within which punitiveness is at the moment measured through top criminologists, in a manner which no different ecu textual content has performed prior to. This booklet is vital studying for college students and students of criminology, penology, legal justice and socio-legal stories, in addition to these legal legal professionals and practitioners operating in eire, Scotland and New Zealand.

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Extra resources for Reconceptualising Penality: A Comparative Perspective on Punitiveness in Ireland, Scotland and New Zealand

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Chapter 3 Ireland 1976–2006: Stagnation and Change Introduction Having briefly introduced the three countries under examination in the first chapter, it is the aim of the next three chapters to provide a more extensive review of crime and the criminal justice response to it in each of them for the period 1976–2006. Each of these chapters will fall into two parts: the first section traversing developments in criminal justice over the 30-year period, with a particular eye to a shift towards more punitive policies and the latter part assessing – in broad trajectory – punitiveness using the seven indices outlined in Chapter 1.

1 27 Tonry’s risk and protective factors Risk factors Protective factors Conflict political systems Consensus political systems Elected judges and prosecutors Non-partisan judges and prosecutors Anglo-Saxon political cultures Francophonic political culture Public-led criminal justice policies Expert-led criminal justice policies High levels of income inequality Low levels of income inequality Weak social welfare systems Generous social welfare systems Low levels of trust in government and governmental institutions High levels of trust in government and governmental institutions Sensationalist journalism Lappi-Seppälä Building on earlier work on Scandinavian ‘exceptionalism’, Lappi-Seppälä (2011, 2012) has put forward a sophisticated overview of the various contexts in which penal policy is formed based on the results of a large cross-national study covering 25 countries over the period 1980–2005.

In his later writing, Wacquant (2009) describes how the arrival of the ‘penal state’ in America is intimately bound up with the dismantling of the social state which accompanied neo-liberal government. In effect, poverty is criminalised so as to frighten people into submissive acceptance of the replacement of reliable wage-work with precarious labour. While the US is certainly Wacquant’s primary reference point, his thesis extends beyond North America. Wacquant advances a similar argument in relation to those Western countries to which the neo-liberal ideology of submission to the free market has spread.

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Reconceptualising Penality: A Comparative Perspective on Punitiveness in Ireland, Scotland and New Zealand by Claire Hamilton

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