By Michael D. Lorenz, T. Mark Neer, Paul DeMars
Small Animal clinical prognosis, 3rd variation takes a problem-oriented method of scientific prognosis and descriptions center details essential to successfully assessment the key scientific difficulties in canines and cats. The textual content starts off via defining difficulties brought on by disorder and proceeds to combine the historical past, actual exam, and diagnostic modalities right into a logical technique designed to help with the clinical administration of sufferers. the hot version maintains to function an important software in actual and applicable prognosis for small animal veterinarians, emergency and important care veterinarians, and veterinary scholars.
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Extra info for Small Animal Medical Diagnosis
The COX-1 preferential NSAIDs are contraindicated in animals with spinal injury (including herniated intervertebral disc) because of the potential for hemorrhage and neurological deterioration, and because of excessive bleeding at the surgical site should surgical treatment be pursued. , epistaxis, hemangiosarcoma, head trauma). Animals with severe or poorly controlled asthma, or other types of moderate to severe pulmonary disease, may deteriorate with NSAID administration. Aspirin has been documented to exacerbate asthma in human patients; however, COX-2 specific NSAIDs did not result in worsening of clinical signs (West and Fernandez, 2003).
Aspirin is more COX-1 selective and can impair many components of mucosal defense and enhance leukocyte adherence within the gastric and mesenteric microcirculation (Wallace and Fiorucci, 2003). However, with chronic use of aspirin there is an adaptation of the gastric mucosa that is associated with a marked upregulation of COX-2 expression and lipoxin production. This lipoxin is specifically termed aspirin-triggered lipoxin (ATL). Aspirin is unique among current therapies because it acetylates COX-2, thereby enabling the biosynthesis of 15(R)hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(R)-HETE) from arachidonic acid, which is subsequently converted to ATL by 5-LOX.
Deracoxib/Deramax); whereas still another drug, acetaminophen, only weakly inhibits both COX-1 and COX-2, but is able to inhibit COX-3 activity preferentially (Botting, 2000). , 2000). , 2001). Most NSAIDs that inhibit COX have been shown to result in diversion of arachidonate to the 5-LOX pathway. , 2001). qxd 24 7/2/07 4:19 PM Page 24 PHARMACOLOGY AND DRUG DELIVERY leukotriene biosynthesis, which subsequently produces various eicosanoids, with LTB4 being the most notable potent mediator of inflammation.
Small Animal Medical Diagnosis by Michael D. Lorenz, T. Mark Neer, Paul DeMars