By Barry Smart
Sociology is a longtime educational self-discipline yet there was carrying on with debate over its prestige as a technology and the character of its subject material. This ended in the emergence of a phenomenological sociology and to evaluations of positivist sociology. This severe reappraisal of the relevance of Marxian research for a technological know-how of society exhibits how those advancements inside of sociology have had their counterpart in Marxism.
The writer analyses the prestige of Marx’s paintings and the Marxist ‘tradition’ in sociology. He focuses upon these issues that are universal to either Marxian research and sociology – the query of subjectivity; the character of social fact; and the dialectical dating of the ‘doing’ or perform of a technological know-how of society to the social global in which such social analyses are located. initially released in 1976.
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The vintage perception of human transcendental awareness assumes its self-supporting existential prestige in the horizon of life-world, nature and earth. but this assumed absoluteness doesn't entail the character of its powers, neither their constitutive strength. This latter demand an existential resource achieving past the generative life-world community.
1 technology and man
2 technological know-how and phenomenology
3 The plan of this work
4 'Geographical phenomenology'
5 The disciplinary context
PART I GEOGRAPHY and conventional METAPHYSICS
Geographical discourse and its vital themes
6 simple recommendations of technology and the tactic applicable to ontology
7 Objectivism and subjectivism
8 Positivism and naturalism
8a The a-historical nature of positivism
8b The Enlightenment and positivism
8c Naturalism and idealism
9 Kantian ontology of fabric nature
10 Conceptions of actual house and geography
10a The emergence of geography as an summary, theoretical science
10b Social physics
11 actual house, cognitive behaviouralism and the flip to subjectivity
12 The mode of being attribute of geographical objects
PART II GEOGRAPHY AND PHENOMENOLOGY
The interpretation of phenomenology in geography
13 The phenomenological foundation of geography
14 Geographical phenomenology
14a Phenomenology and functional research
15 methods to geographical phenomenology
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16a Phenomenology as criticism
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16d Phenomena of lived experience
17 The flip to the lifeworld, and the paradox of floor and object
18 The phenomenological method
Geographical phenomenology: a critique of its foundations
19 The metaphysics of geographical phenomenology
20 Humanism and the confusion of the 'objective' and the 'subjective'
20a Subjectivity and intentionality
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21 Geographical phenomenology: its inner critique
21a Phenomenology and standards of validity
22 The flip to Schiitz's constitutive phenomenology and justifying a go back to Husserl
PART III PHENOMENOLOGY AND THE query OF HUMAN SCIENCE
Husserlian phenomenology: the foundational project
23 what's phenomenology?
23a Phenomenology: its origins and foundations
23b The normal attitude
23c Empirical technological know-how and natural science
23d unique intuition
23c Phenomena and intentionality
24 the necessity for phenomenology
24a The main issue of distance among technological know-how and life
24b The critique of the confident sciences
24c The constitution of the area and 'objects' of science
24d Phenomenology and the guiding inspiration of science
Phenomenology, technology and phenomenological geography
25 Descriptive phenomenology and science
25a Sciences of truth and sciences of essence
25b Descriptive phenomenology
26 Phenomenology, technological know-how and lifeworld
26a The lifeworld ontology
26b The sciences and the lifeworld
26c The technological know-how of the lifeworld
26d Lifeworld and transcendental phenomenology
Towards a primary ontology of science
27 Phenomenology and a basic ontology of science
28 technological know-how and objectivation in geography
28a How does theoretical discovery arise?
28b the standard global and the theoretical attitude
29 the improvement of technology and the idea that of 'progress'
30 Human technology and objectification
31 Rigour and exactitude in science
32 concept and its achieve and carry over nature and world
33 technological know-how and the lived world
PART IV HUMAN technology, WORLDHOOD, AND SPATIALITY
Implications for the human sciences and a human technology of geography
35 Phenomenology and the technological know-how of geography
36 in the direction of a proper projective human science
37 Husserl and human science
38 in the direction of a proper and a priori 'mathesis of spiritand of humanity'
39 The existential analytic and the human sciences
40 The existential analytic and the 'natural perception of the world' (or lifeworld)
Towards an knowing of human spatiality
41 Geography, global and space
42 global and worldhood
43a The technological view of space
43b The spatiality of the present-at-hand
44 the typical mode of being-in-the-world
45 The spatiality of the ready-to-hand: areas and regions
46 area and science
47 Man's spatiality
48 house and man's spatiality
49 position and house: implications for a nearby ontology of spatiality for a geographical human technological know-how
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Extra info for Sociology, Phenomenology and Marxian Analysis: A Critical Discussion of the Theory and Practice of a Science of Society
Clearly in these respects Parsons’s orientation is not entirely incompatible with that of Marx. In the case of differentiation Parsons is seen to be moving towards the evolutionary perspective, seeking to provide an explanation of the way in which social systems change in an orderly manner, but again seeming to drift further towards the Marxist position. Specifically, Gouldner argues that Parsons’s discussion of differentia tion resembles M arx’s account of the contradictions between the forces and relations of production, the re-orientation in the work of the former - from considerations of equilibrium to those of change being accompanied by a shift from Comtean to M arxian domain assumptions.
Another example appears in Lenski’s (1966) monumental attem pt to bring together in a meaningful way the diverse contributions of various theorists classified as functionalist or conflict in orientation, his intention being a theory of stratification incorporating both consensual and conflictual elements. In both cases an understanding of Marx as a conflict theorist constitutes a significant aspect of their synthesis and no attem pt is made to address the adequacy of such an understanding. The reading of M arx’s work implicit in the second position outlined here has given rise to Birnbaum’s identification of a crisis in Marxist sociology.
As such one may distinguish between man existing within a determinate mode of production and potential man, the former being the victim of social forces and pressures, suffering from a condition of alienation result ing from a specific mode of production, and maintained by social institutions and historical processes. This is man the product of history, man incapable of seeing either the possibility or the presence of his role as the producer of history. On the other hand potential man is the sensual and active being, with the capacity to be able to do as Marx expressed, somewhat romantically, ‘one thing today and another tomorrow, .
Sociology, Phenomenology and Marxian Analysis: A Critical Discussion of the Theory and Practice of a Science of Society by Barry Smart