By Saunders, Todd
In the course of the first international battle in depth examine on poisonous chemicals used to be conducted in the entire belligerent international locations. a lot of this study had, and nonetheless has, a slightly restrictedinterest, however the stories on natural compounds containing phosphorus and fluorine, initiated during this state through Dr Saunders and his colleagues, have had broad epercussions. not just have they encouraged reports in enzymology or even medical medication, yet they've got accomplished commercial significance within the basic box of pest keep watch over. the improvement of contemporary systemic pesticides, which stems from the autonomous wartime reports of Dr Saunders in England and Dr Schrader in Germany, is certainly a desirable tale and one that is much less famous than it may be. The veil of secrecy protecting the early paintings and the fairly piecemeal uncovering of it within the years following the battle have triggered many chemists and biologists to stay very ill-informed in regards to the improvement of data within the box of natural phosphorus and fluorine compounds. the current monograph should still do a lot to treatment this scenario. even supposing meant basically for chemists, the booklet includes a lot details at the pharmacology of the compounds mentioned; this is often quite worthwhile in view that a formal appreciation of the organic heritage is key to the chemist who needs to determine the paintings in right standpoint. As person who has had the privilege of following the paintings of Dr Saunders and his colleagues heavily from its beginnings in 1939, i'm really happy that he has now written this authoritative account of it and that i commend the monograph to chemists and biologists as a mine of knowledge on essentially the most fascinating chemical advancements which originated in paintings started below the tension of conflict.
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Extra info for SOME ASPECTS O F THE CHEMISTRY AND TOXICACTION OF ORGANIC COMPOUND SCONTAINING PHOSPHORU SAND FLUORINE
The temperature coefficient of the velocity of conduction in nerve is about 1-8 for a rise of 10°, and is of the same order as 1 Hodgkin, Biol. Rev. 1951, 26, 379. 29 NOTES ON THE MAMMALIAN NERVOUS SYSTEM t h a t of the velocity of chemical change, and is far greater than t h a t of electrical conductions. At 0° conduction is usually completely abolished. Complete nerve block can also result by subjecting the nerve to the action of air containing anaesthetic vapours. On removal of the vapour the conductivity is restored.
A still more economical method for large-scale work was then sought, since a further drawback of methods (i) and (iii) is that 1 Cf. Gerrard, J. Chem. Soc. 1940, p. 1464, who had worked, however, only with n-butyl alcohol. 1 Walczynska, Roczn. Chem. 1926, 6, 110. 8 Milobedski and Sachnowski, Chem. Zbl. 1918, 1, 911. 4 McCombie, Saunders and Stacey, J. Chem. Soc. 1945, p. 380. 44 SYNTHETIC METHODS the complete removal of the tertiary base is sometimes difficult, particularly the elimination of traces of pyridine from triethyl phosphite.
Chlorination of the hydrogen phosphite gave 76 per cent of pure di-isopropyl phosphorochloridate (stage I I ) . ) By heating the phosphorochloridate, dissolved in a solvent such as dry benzene, with an inorganic fluoride such as dry sodium fluoride (stage I I I ) , pure di-isopropyl phosphorofluoridate was obtained in 90 per cent yield. Thus the phosphorofluoridate was obtainable in a pure condition by a three-stage process from phosphorus trichloride and isopropyl alcohol, and the overall yield was ca.
SOME ASPECTS O F THE CHEMISTRY AND TOXICACTION OF ORGANIC COMPOUND SCONTAINING PHOSPHORU SAND FLUORINE by Saunders, Todd