By Virginia E. Wotring
“Space Pharmacology” is a overview of the present wisdom concerning the use of prescription drugs in the course of spaceflights. it's a entire evaluate of the literature, addressing every one region of pharmacokinetics and every significant physiological process in flip. each part starts with a subject matter evaluation, and is by way of a dialogue of released facts from spaceflight, and from floor experiments intended to version the spaceflight scenario. incorporates a dialogue expecting the recent scientific demanding situations we're more likely to face on longer length exploration missions. This ebook is a picture of our present wisdom that still highlights parts of unknown.
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Extra resources for Space pharmacology
2008; Srinivasan et al. 2009). Exogenous dosing during the newly desired “night” has been shown to help reset circadian rhythms in people with jet lag and in blind people who show no endogenous rhythm (Arendt et al. 1986; Arendt et al. 1986; Folkard et al. 1990). A high-dose protocol did not noticeably improve sleep when used in flight (Dijk et al. 2001), but given that there has been no consensus in the literature as to the best formulation, dose, or dosing schedule (Sack et al. 1997), it is possible that the dose used in this flight study was not optimal.
1983; Smith et al. 1999; Drummer et al. 2000b; LeBlanc et al. 2000; Drummer et al. 2001; Zwart et al. 2004; Cavanagh et al. 2005; LeBlanc et al. 2007; Zwart et al. 2009). Alterations in the hormones that control salt and water balance, cell growth, and immune function have been found in spaceflight (Leach et al. 1972; Leach 1979; Leach 1981; Leach et al. 1983; Leach et al. 1988; Cintron et al. 1990; Leach 1991; Leach et al. 1991; Drummer et al. 2001; Wade et al. 2002; Santucci et al. 2009). In animals, altered insulin levels and changes in glucose tolerance have been seen (Bernardini and Taub 1969; Macho et al.
Which is now being used to tailor drug dosing regimens for specific individuals based on the DNA sequences that encode their metabolic enzymes (sometimes called “personalized medicine” in the popular press). Currently, this type of variation has been noted for only a single drug used in spaceflight (codeine), but as more genetic polymorphisms are identified and new drugs are added to the formulary, it may become prudent to test crewmembers to determine metabolic reaction rates and prepare optimized treatment plans for individual crewmembers according to their genotypes.
Space pharmacology by Virginia E. Wotring