By J. Turton, J. Hooson

ISBN-10: 0748401571

ISBN-13: 9780748401574

The main organs of the physique are goals for chemically-induced results in animals and people. This booklet reports the mechanisms of those poisonous results and the structure/functional alterations which happen within the objective organ tissues as a result of publicity to toxicants together with medicinal drugs, agrochemicals, business chemical compounds, radiation and warmth. The organs of the physique coated comprise the liver, lymphatic procedure, cardiovascular method, breathing tract, lungs, skeleton, epidermis, vital anxious procedure, endocrine method and the reproductive approach.

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Because of the cost and time required for such studies, together with the desire to reduce animal testing, many attempts have been made to devise short-term biological assays for assessing likely skin carcinogenic potential. Examples of such assays include in vivo assays on mouse skin, such as the sebaceous gland suppression test [18] and the mouse skin nuclear enlargement test [19], and the in vitro modified Ames assay [20]. These tests have principally been developed to identify the skin carcinogenic potential of complex hydrocarbon mixtures such as oil products.

G. xylitol), gums and fibre can increase the bulk of the digesta leading to caecal distention [13] and diarrhoea. g. by high doses of quaternary ammonium compounds [16]. Intestinal phospholipidosis may result from the inability of lysosomal enzymes to degrade amphiphilic molecules. Similarly, high-molecular-weight molecules may be transported into the lamina propria to accumulate as foamy macrophages or form macrophage aggregates in the regional (mesenteric) lymph nodes [17]. Inhibitors of protein synthesis, such as puromycin and ethionine, may lead to enterocyte lipid accumulation through lack of apoprotein synthesis [18].

This is because the pale pink colour of the shaved back skin allows skin reactions to be seen readily. The standard method of skin irritancy testing for many years has been the Draize test [141. 5 cm2) patches to the shaved skin of six New Zealand White rabbits for 24 h under occlusive conditions. One of the two patches was applied to intact skin and the other to abraded skin. Each treated area of skin was examined after patch removal (24 h) and 48 h later (72 h) and assessed for erythema and oedema, each on a scale of 0 to 4.

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Target Organ Pathology: A Basic Text by J. Turton, J. Hooson

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