By A. Knight
Few moral concerns create as a lot controversy as invasive experiments on animals. a few scientists declare they're crucial for fighting significant human disorder, or detecting human pollutants. Others declare the opposite, subsidized through millions of sufferers harmed through prescribed drugs constructed utilizing animal exams. a few declare all experiments are carried out humanely, to excessive clinical criteria. but, a wealth of reviews have lately published that laboratory animals endure major rigidity, which can distort experimental effects. -Where, then, does the reality lie? -How helpful are such experiments in advancing human healthcare? -How a lot do animals undergo therefore? -And do scholars actually need to dissect or scan on animals? -What are the consequences on their attitudes in the direction of them? Bioethicist and veterinarian Andrew Knight offers greater than a decade of ground-breaking clinical examine, research and adventure to supply evidence-based solutions to a key query: is animal experimentation ethically justifiable?
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Extra info for The Costs and Benefits of Animal Experiments (The Palgrave Macmillan Animal Ethics Series)
Moreover, a growing body of empirical evidence casts doubt on the scientific utility of animals as experimental models of humans. g. Greek & Greek 2000 & 2002b). indd 39 5/13/2011 12:24:52 PM 40 Human Benefits (TeGenero 2006a & 2006b). e. first in humans) clinical trial in the UK, TGN1412 resulted in severe adverse reactions including organ failure. All six trial volunteers required intensive care, and one suffered permanent damage. Yet preclinical testing on several primate, rabbit, and rodent species had failed to reveal adverse effects (Bhogal & Combes 2006, Coghlan 2006; see also pp.
2008). Summary The most accurate evidence-based estimates of global laboratory animal numbers currently available describe animal use in 2005. 6 million more were estimated to have been killed for the provision of experimental tissues or as surplus to requirements, or used to maintain established GM strains, none of which were included within EU standardised figures. indd 16 5/13/2011 12:25:42 PM Global Laboratory Animal Use 17 2008a). 6 million component, is markedly limited by lack of published animal use statistics.
G. g. g. Wallenstein & Snyder 1952, Blum et al. 1994, Greek & Greek 2000). Although 92 per cent of new drugs that pass preclinical testing, which routinely includes animal tests, fail to reach the market because of safety or efficacy failures in human clinical trials (FDA 2004), adverse drug reactions detected after drugs have been approved for clinical use remain common. They are, indeed, sufficiently common to have been recorded as the fourth to sixth leading cause of death in US hospitals (based on a 95 per cent confidence interval (CI); Lazarou & Pomeranz 1998), a rate considered by these investigators to be ‘extremely high’.
The Costs and Benefits of Animal Experiments (The Palgrave Macmillan Animal Ethics Series) by A. Knight