By Brand Fortner
What our academics do not let us know in class is that we'll spend so much of our medical or engineering occupation in entrance of pcs, attempting to beat them into submission. My formal education in computational technological know-how is nil, which i believe is right of ninety percentage of the scientists and engineers on this planet. during this booklet, i try to assemble in a single position the very simple proof that each technical individual should still learn about desktops. The desktops of this present day nonetheless require you to understand quite a lot approximately them which will use them successfully for technical information research. Scientists and engineers who're computing device newcomers may still learn this booklet disguise to hide (that is, in my modest opinion). skilled machine clients should still use this booklet as a reference. There are nuggets of priceless details during this ebook ready to be found through even the main computer-literate of you. adjustments within the moment version a variety of corrections and clarifications have been made through the textual content. because of all of you who despatched on your reviews at the first variation. additionally, the index and word list were tremendously improved.
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Additional resources for The Data Handbook: A Guide to Understanding the Organization and Visualization of Technical Data
Most computers follow the same pattern when ordering bytes for short and long integers: the most significant byte comes first, the least significant byte comes last. 12, where M stands for 2 20 "" 1 million, K for 2 10 "" 1000. 12 IEEE byte ordering Byte Position Multiplier 1 16M 224 2 3 65K 256 2 16 , 2 8 4 1 2° Two important computers do not order bytes this way: The Digital Equipment Corporation VAX and the Inte180X86 (MS-DOS/ Windows) computer. For both of these computers, the least significant byte comes first, but in slightly different ways.
You can use offsets to increase the precision of your calculation at the expense of the maximum range of values. The equation for storing a number with offsets is y = m X (x + b) where b is the offset. 6. In this way, your stored values will have an accuracy of 11m = 0 . 039, much better than the precision of 1 that you would have without any conversion and better than the precision of 40/256 = 0 . 156 that you would have without the offset. Note that for the unsigned byte example above, the multiplier of o.
You should see 0 . 10956) and an exponent, or the 'power of 10' (-28). 999. When you do not know the range of the data before performing the calculation, you may not know what the best multiplier is. 10956) as a fixed-point number (910956), and then also store the exponent as an integer (- 28). This should work for all numbers, as long as you express them in exponential notation first. Single-Precision Floating-Point Exponential notation is, in fact, the way floating-point numbers are stored in computers.
The Data Handbook: A Guide to Understanding the Organization and Visualization of Technical Data by Brand Fortner