By Alberto Luis Cione, Germán Mariano Gasparini, Esteban Soibelzon, Leopoldo Héctor Soibelzon, Eduardo Pedro Tonni
South American ecosystems suffered one of many maximum biogeographical occasions, after the institution of the Panamian land bridge, referred to as the “Great American Biotic Interchange” (GABI). This refers back to the trade, in numerous levels, of land mammals among the Americas; this occasion all started throughout the overdue Miocene with the looks of the Holartic Procyonidae (Huayquerian Age) in South the US and maintains this present day. the key levels of mammalian dispersal happened from the most recent Pliocene (Marplatan Age) to the past due Pleistocene (Lujanian Age). an important and richest localities of overdue Miocene-Holocene fossil vertebrates of South the United States are these of the Pampean quarter of Argentina. There also are numerous overdue Miocene and Pliocene localities in western Argentina and Bolivia. different very important fossils were gathered in localities of Pleistocene age open air Argentina: Tarija (Bolivia), karstic caves of Lagoa Santa and the lately explored caves of Tocantins (Brasil), Talara (Perú), los angeles Carolina (Ecuador), Muaco (Venezuela), and Cueva del Milodon (Chile), between others. The ebook discusses uncomplicated details for analyzing the GABI corresponding to taxonomic composition (incorporating the newest revisions) at classical and new localities for every degree addressing weather, environments, and time barriers for every level. It comprises the chronology and dynamics of the GABI, the combination of South American mammalian faunas via time, the Quaternary mammalian extinctions and the composition of contemporary mammalian fauna of the continent.
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Additional info for The Great American Biotic Interchange: A South American Perspective
The Little Ice Age (LIA) According to De Menocal (2001), the LIA developed in the interval 1550– 1900 AD. This cold event was recognized in northern Europe through the study of the advancing glaciers in historical times, especially since the sixteenth century. For Argentine Patagonia, researchers from IANIGLA (a research institute at the city of Mendoza, western Argentina) compiled extensive data on climatic variations during and immediately after the LIA (Masiokas et al. 2008, 2010). The LIA is known in Argentina almost exclusively through faunal observations in the eastern Pampas.
In this way, this period began to take shape what we now know as humid pampas, which in the 1900s helped Argentina to become the “breadbasket of the world” due to a combination of fertile loess soils and abundant and well-distributed rainfall. 6 Biogeography of the Recent Mammals of South America The present mammal fauna composition and distribution of South America is the result of many million years of evolution. This history involves taxic origination, colonization, dispersion, radiation, and extinction (see Simpson 1950; Reig 1981).
The cervid Antifer ensenadensis is cited as exclusive taxon by Cione and Tonni (2005) in the Pampean region; however, Labarca and Alcaraz (2011) mention that this species is also present in the Lujanian Toropí Formation (Corrientes Province). Concerning “Megatherium” istilarti from the “Irenense” of the Quequén Salado River (Lower Chapadmalalan; after Cione and Tonni 1995), its inclusion in Megatherium is likely incorrect (Brandoni 2006) since some characters of this species are more related to Pyramiodontherium.
The Great American Biotic Interchange: A South American Perspective by Alberto Luis Cione, Germán Mariano Gasparini, Esteban Soibelzon, Leopoldo Héctor Soibelzon, Eduardo Pedro Tonni