By A. J. Ayer

A.J. Ayer. The Origins of Pragmatism. reports within the philosophy of Charles Sanders Pierce and William James. London; Melbourne; Toronto : Macmillan, 1968.

Hardcover: 352 pages (346 – this pdf)
Publisher: Macmillan; 1st version (September 1968)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 0333005570
ISBN-13: 978-0333005576
Printed ebook Dimensions: 8.7 x 5.6 x 1.2 inches

Description (Ayer approximately this book):
"(…) My plan used to be to provide a severe account of the philosophical perspectives of Peirce and James at the one facet, and Moore and Russell at the different. either for old purposes, and since I knew least approximately him, i began with Peirce. In facing his works intimately i discovered such a lot of issues of trouble and curiosity that i used to be drawn into writing approximately him at a lot better size than I had meant. whilst a similar grew to become out to be real of James, i made a decision that the 1st half my plan used to be sufficient to be occurring with; a serious exam of the philosophy of those nice pragmatists could make a wide adequate booklet by itself. i have never, although, totally given up the belief of publishing a similar research of the philosophy of Moore and Russell at a few later date.
It has no longer been my objective to provide a piece of ancient scholarship. i've got learn the works of Peirce and James attentively, yet i haven't attempted to situate them within the background of philosophy, nor have I studied the writings of alternative commentators, to work out how a ways their interpretations consider mine. If this e-book includes passages during which different commentators realize an echo in their personal released perspectives, i will, as a result, basically ask them to simply accept my insurance that the plagiarism is subconscious. i've got attempted to make up my very own brain approximately what Peirce and James have been announcing and i've additionally felt unfastened to improve my very own theories on a few of the major concerns which they raise”.

CONTENTS. Preface – CHARLES SANDERS PEIRCE – 1. creation – 2. THE BASES OF PEIRCE'S PRAGMATISM – A. His conception of fact – B. His thought of which means (1. what's trust ? – 2. Operations on options – three. Concessions to Realism) – three. PEIRCE'S PHILOSOPHY OF technology – A. the 3 varieties of Reasoning – B The Justification of Induction – C The issue of likelihood – four. PEIRCE'S different types AND HIS conception OF symptoms – A the 3 different types (1. Feeling and belief – 2. evidence and legislation) – B the translation of symptoms – C. The Divisions of symptoms (1. kinds and Tokens – 2. Icons, Indices and emblems – three. Propositions and their matters) – D. Appraisal of Peirce's concept of Signs.
WILLIAM JAMES – 1. creation – 2. the need TO think AND THE PRAGMATIC conception OF fact – A. James’s Emotional Commitments – B. the character of fact (1. fact on the subject of issues of truth – 2. A priori Truths – three. ethical and Aesthetic decisions) – C. the need and its Freedom – D. where of spiritual trust – three. RADICAL EMPIRICISM – A. the information of expertise (1. Sensation and belief – 2. The Genesis of area – three. The Genesis of Time – four. The research of reminiscence) – B The Knower and the identified (1. the idea that of the Self – 2. A concept of private identification – three. Percepts and ideas) – C. the development of the actual global (1. stories of their Double element – 2. the foundation of the development – three. The query of privateness – four. the development defined) On What there's – Index.

About the writer of this book:
I was once a great deal shocked to not locate any unmarried ebook by way of Ayer (1910–1989) in this tracker, wish we’ll see a few extra books quickly. it's stated that between British philosophers of the twentieth century, he has been ranked through Stanford as moment “only to Bertrand Russell”. usually recognized for his works on logical positivism, Ayer a profound knowing of pragmatism to boot.

Details in this file: a b/w six hundred dpi test (upscale from four hundred dpi); bookmarked, textual content layer; first time at the Internet.

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Extra info for The Origins of Pragmatism

Sample text

In this sense, indeed, it is a matter not of fact but of linguistic usage that physical objects themselves exist unperceived. The meaning of a word, on the other hand, is obtained, in Peirce's view, to put it summarily, by listing the facts to which the word applies. Thus, if someone says of a diamond that it is hard, he means that it is never the case that some substance which is brought into contact with the diamond scratches it. And the meaning, as opposed to the usage, of the sentence 'this diamond is soft, but becomes hard when it is brought into contact with another substance' is exactly the same.

To bring about this effect is the prerogative of the method of science/1 But what meaning can Peirce attach to the statement that an opinion does, or does not, coincide with fact? Or to put it another way, how does he suppose that we can discover whether our opinions coincide with fact or not? By pursuing scientific method. But the other methods also result in beliefs which coincide with what they would lead us to accept as fact, and the scientific method does no more. The difference is that if we follow one of the other methods we may have to shut our eyes to a great deal that we should otherwise be led to believe.

P. 50 CHARLES SANDERS PEIRCE conception of this quality, as of every other, lies in its conceived effects. There is absolutely no difference between a hard thing and a soft thing so long as they are not brought to the test/1 But surely things may be hard even though their hardness is never directly tested. Peirce considers this objection. '2 His rather startling reply is that 'there would be no falsity in such modes of speech. They would involve a modification of our present usage of speech with regard to the words hard and soft, but not of their meanings.

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