By Frank M. Lachmann
Using Kohut's seminal paper "Forms and changes of Narcissism" as a springboard, Frank Lachmann updates Kohut's proposals for modern clinicians. Transforming Narcissism: Reflections on Empathy, Humor, and expectancies draws on a variety of contributions from empirical little one examine, psychoanalytic and psychotherapeutic perform, social psychology, and autobiographies of artistic artists to extend and alter Kohut's proposition that archaic narcissism is reworked during improvement or via remedy into empathy, humor, creativity, an reputation of transience and wisdom.
He asserts that empathy, humor, and creativity aren't the pursuits or finish items of adjustments, yet are an intrinsic a part of the continuing therapist-patient discussion all through treatment. The transformative procedure is bidirectional, impacting either sufferer and therapist, and their impact undergoes transformation - for instance from indifferent to intimate - and narcissism or self-states are reworked secondarily due to the affective interactions. Meeting or violating expectancies of emotional responsivity presents a major pathway for transformation of affect.
For starting therapists, Transforming Narcissism provides an enticing method of remedy that comes with the healing motion of those ameliorations, but in addition leaves room for therapists to increase kinds of their own. For more matured therapists, it fills a conceptual and medical hole, offers a scaffold for an important aspects of treatment that are usually unacknowledged (because they aren't "analytic"), or are brushed aside and pejoratively labeled "countertransference." Most importantly, Lachmann deals a stability among healing spontaneity and professional constraint. targeted and engaging, Transforming Narcissism offers a bridge from self psychology to a rainbow of relational techniques that starting and professional therapists can profitably traverse in both direction.
Dr. Lachmann contributed to an editorial on empathy within the April, 2008 factor of O journal, pp. 230.
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Additional resources for Transforming Narcissism: Reflections on Empathy, Humor, and Expectations
Sally was 42 years old when her husband precipitously left her because, as Sally and I came to see it, he could not devote himself to drinking while being married to her. She had been in therapy, on and off, for about 20 years. After her husband left she again sought therapy and after a brief failed therapy experience, she then entered treatment with me. She was skeptical about receiving any benefit and was reluctant to engage once again in what she anticipated would be another disappointing experience.
But disruption and repair occur repeatedly in mother–infant interaction and studies of this pattern can shed light on similar patterns of interaction that occur in therapy and in life, generally. A classic illustration of the disruption and repair of affective communication is the “still face” study (Tronick, Als, Adamson, Wise, & Brazelton, 1978). In the still face paradigm an event is studied that occurs innumerable times in the life of infants: namely, the violation of the infant’s expectation of affective responsivity of the mother.
Mithen reported that cross-cultural studies have demonstrated that music directly expresses emotions and similar musical conventions arouse similar emotions in listeners across the globe. In addition, attributes of music such as the interval between two notes can induce similar emotional states in listeners in diverse cultures. Here is an illustration of affect being transformed directly without language. In fact, Mithen, like composer–musicologist Leonard Bernstein (1976), considers music to be the language of emotion.
Transforming Narcissism: Reflections on Empathy, Humor, and Expectations by Frank M. Lachmann