By Frank R. Spellman
Water and Wastewater Conveyance: Pumping, Hydraulics, Piping, and Valves provides basic, easy info at the conveyance of water and wastewater. Written in straight-forward and easy-to-understand language for execs and non-professionals alike, it presents the suggestions to aid water and wastewater operators to raised comprehend easy pump operations and purposes, upkeep regimens, and troubleshooting strategies. Addressing a mess of water caliber matters, it offers an creation to water hydraulics, piping platforms, tubes, hoses, and ancillaries in addition to valves, and the upkeep necessities of every. It additionally discusses universal operational difficulties and their applicable corrective activities. Definitions of keywords and self-examination questions are supplied on the finish of every bankruptcy.
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Extra resources for Water and wastewater conveyance: pumping, hydraulics, piping, and valves
Typical intakes include submerged intakes, floating intakes, infiltration galleries, spring boxes, and roof catchments. Their primary functions are to supply the highest quality water from the source and to protect piping and pumps from clogging and damage due to wave action, ice formation, flooding, and submerged debris. A poorly conceived or constructed intake can cause many problems. Failure of the intake could result in water system failure. For a small stream, the most common intake structures are small gravity dams placed across the stream or a submerged intake.
Whether the surface water supply is taken from a river, stream, lake, spring, impoundment, reservoir, or dam, the surface water quality can vary widely, especially in rivers, streams, and small lakes. These water bodies are susceptible not only to waste discharge contamination but also to flash contamination (which can occur almost immediately and not necessarily over time). Lakes are subject to summer/winter stratification (turnover) and to algal blooms. Pollution sources include runoff (agricultural, residential, and urban), spills, municipal and industrial wastewater discharges, and recreational users, as well as natural occurrences.
SOURCES OF WATER Approximately 40 million cubic miles of water cover or reside within the Earth. The oceans contain about 97% of all water on Earth. 5%. 6 feet (a volume of 5900 km3). Of this amount, approximately 71% evaporates (about 4200 cm3), and 29% goes to stream flow (about 1700 cubic km3). Beneficial freshwater uses include manufacturing, food production, domestic and public needs, recreation, hydroelectric power production, and flood control. 5% (440 km3). 4%, or 200 km3 per year). 6% (35 km3 per year) of this amount.
Water and wastewater conveyance: pumping, hydraulics, piping, and valves by Frank R. Spellman