By Mark M. Benjamin
Explains the elemental concept and arithmetic of water and wastewater remedy processes
By conscientiously explaining either the underlying conception and the underlying arithmetic, this article permits readers to completely seize the basics of actual and chemical remedy procedures for water and wastewater. during the e-book, the authors use unique examples to demonstrate real-world demanding situations and their ideas, together with step by step mathematical calculations. every one bankruptcy ends with a collection of difficulties that allow readers to place their wisdom into perform by means of constructing and studying advanced techniques for the removing of soluble and particulate fabrics with the intention to make sure the defense of our water supplies.
Designed to provide readers a deep realizing of ways water therapy approaches truly paintings, Water caliber Engineering explores:
- Application of mass balances in non-stop stream structures, permitting readers to appreciate and expect adjustments in water quality
- Processes for removal soluble contaminants from water, together with therapy of municipal and commercial wastes
- Processes for removal particulate fabrics from water
- Membrane procedures to take away either soluble and particulate materials
Following the dialogue of mass balances in non-stop circulation platforms within the first a part of the ebook, the authors clarify and learn water remedy procedures in next chapters by way of surroundings forth the appropriate mass stability for the method, reactor geometry, and move trend below consideration.
With its many examples and challenge units, Water caliber Engineering is usually recommended as a textbook for graduate classes in actual and chemical remedy tactics for water and wastewater. by way of drawing jointly the latest learn findings and practices, this article is additionally urged for pro environmental engineers looking for a modern viewpoint on water and wastewater therapy processes.
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Extra info for Water Quality Engineering: Physical / Chemical Treatment Processes
Similarly, dispersion can control the spreading of solutes upstream and downstream along the length of a river and in reactors that have nearly uniform flow in one direction. Reactors that are designed to be plug flow reactors (with exactly uniform flow in the axial direction) often do not achieve that ideal, in which case dispersion can control the longitudinal mixing in the reactor. Such reactors include packed beds that are used to carry out adsorption of solutes and filtration of particles, and tanks used for water disinfection.
If the contaminant concentration in the river at the discharge point is 2 mg/L and k ¼ 3(mg/L)À1 kmÀ1, how much contaminant is stored in the 5-km segment of the river downstream of the plant? Over this stretch, the river has an approximately uniform cross-sectional area of A ¼ 24 m2. Solution. To determine the mass of contaminant stored in the river, we can define a CV that is bounded by the crosssection of the river and a distance dx in the direction of flow. The volume of water in this differential section is therefore Adx, and the mass of contaminant stored in the section is c(x)Adx.
Three choices for the system boundaries for a mass balance characterizing a water treatment process are shown in Figure 1-1. The flow diagram shown is used in the conventional activated sludge process for biological treatment of wastewater, and also for certain precipitation processes in water and wastewater treatment operations (specifically, precipitation processes that incorporate sludge recycle). The boundaries shown in Figure 1-1a isolate the tank where the key biological or chemical conversions occur, those shown in Figure 1-1b isolate the portion of the system where solid/liquid separation is accomplished, and those shown in Figure 1-1c encompass the entire treatment system.
Water Quality Engineering: Physical / Chemical Treatment Processes by Mark M. Benjamin