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Additional info for Waterside Corrosion of Zr Alloys in Nuclear Powerplants (IAEA TECDOC-996)

Sample text

5%Nb (batch Bg) in 200-300° C (473-573K) water [70]. 00 Time (days) 120 140 160 0 20 40 60 80 100 Time (days) FIG. 420. 001% y^ CN D) C 0) 001% 10 i i i i 10 0 Exposure time, h, 10 FIG. 21. Corrosion ofZr-I%Nb in water, water + steam and in steam at 285"C. 1. 9 mg/l; 2. 36 mg/l, 20-30%steam; 3. Steam. O, 10-36 mg/l 172]. 1000 -31 CN, fi d" 100 — • D) i—i CD 10 I 0 I r I ITTTT 1 I I \\ \ I 11 10 100 Exposure time, h, 10 FIG. 22. Corrosion of Zr-l%Nb in water and in water + steam at 350°C. I. 9 mg/l; 2.

4. 2. 1) show that oxygen is more stable when dissolved in the metal phase than when present as an oxide film [44]. As a result of this, the first 1/2 monolayer of oxygen that reacts with a clean zirconium surface goes into subsurface sites, even at liquid nitrogen temperature [45]. As more oxygen reacts, oxygen physisorbed on the surface becomes evident, and with further reaction this is converted into a thin oxide film. This oxide grows until it is limited by the ability of electrons to tunnel through it.

For very thin films, and relatively low temperature oxidation, the perturbation of the field in the oxide by space-charge layers near the interfaces must also be taken into account. Here it may be that the model of Cabrera and Mott is most applicable [15]. In this model the electrons are considered to be capable of migrating through the oxide film much more easily than any ionic species. As a result of this a potential (the Mott potential) is set up which slows down electron migration and accelerates ionic diffusion until the two are equal.

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Waterside Corrosion of Zr Alloys in Nuclear Powerplants (IAEA TECDOC-996)


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